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What are 2 major micronutrients
Vitamins and minerals
What are Vitamins?
2 main Functions?
2 main categories?
Organic Substances (carbon)
coenymes and help absorb other nutrients
What are minerals?
inorganic substances (w/o carbon)
- Fluid balance (na+)
- muscle contraction (K+)
- allows nerve impulses to conduct
- bone & teeth growth (Ca+)
Example of Vitamins and Minerals?
- Water soluble: Thiamin, Riboflavin, folic acid, B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, C, Niacin
- Fat soluble: A, E, D, K
- Minerals: Calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur
Procesed foods Vs. whole foods
: micronutrients removed
- Whole: not much processed
- better for healthy diet
- contain vitamins & minerals & antioxidants
What are antioxidants? Where are they found and function?
- Present in whole foods
- protect celss from damage caused by free radicals
- thought to have a role in disease prevention
- Examples: Beta-carotene, lutein, lytopene, selenium, vitamins A,B,C
Harvard School or Public Health food plate
Why does the body need food?
Why is energy necessary?
For the body to function
What is the general pathway for food to travel?
- 1) Mouth
- 2) Esophogas
- 3) Stomach
- 4) small intestine
- 5) larger intestine
- 6) anus
- Uses salive to breakdwon food
- breaksdown enzymes into carbohydrates
Moves products to stomach
Gastric juices breakdown food
- bile, most digestion takes place here
- especially fats, nutrients abosrbed here
- waters absorbed, vitamins absorbed
- Indigestibale material compacted and stored
How do nutrients get to cells?
- absorbption takes place in the small intestine
- Transported by bloodstream
What is cellular respiration?
Process of converting nutrients + oxygen into C02, H20 and ATP
What Organelle does cellular respiration take place in?
The following biological molecules metabolize into what? and whats the order?
- Protein: Amino acids, broken down after carb and fats (3rd)
- Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, broken down and used for ATP (1st)
- Fats: glycerol and fatty acids, broken down for ATP after carbs (2nd)
- 1. Base tube
- 2. nosepiece
- 3. Objective lens
- 6. stage clips
- 7. Iris Diaphram
- 8. Light source
- 9. eyepiece
- 10. arm
- 12. course focus
- 13. Fine focus
- 14. Base
- Answers descending from L-R
- Cell membrane
- nuclear membrane
- Rough ER
- Smooth ER
- golgi body
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Prokaryote: lack membrane, small, simple structure
Eukaryote: Membrane w/ nucleus, organelles and complex structure
Phospholipid bilayer forms selectively permeable membrane.
The fluid that is inside the cell
- contains DNA
- contains nucleolus
- Surrounded by envelope, nucleor pores
- Rough ER: Ribosomes on it, synthesizes proteins
- Smooth ER: no ribosomes, synthesizes lipids
- modifies proteins
- packaged in vesicles
Digest and recycle molecules and destroy damaged organelles
- used for movement (cilia)
- used for shape
- releases ATP for food
- Where cellular respiration takes place
uses light energy to synthesize carbs (plant cell only)
- provides structure and support
- plant cell only
- stores water and gives shape
- plant cell only
Differences in plant and animal cells
- Plant: chloroplasts, cell wall of cellulose, central vacuole
- Animal: lysosomes
What is the Fluid mosaic model?
the proteins on the membrane are moving around
a double layer of phospholipid molecules whose " hydrophilic" heads are facing outwards, and it's "hydrophobic" tails face inwards.
- head is a glycerol, hydrophilic,
- tails are fatty acids, hydrophobic
what does selectively permeable mean?
that some things are allowed to croos the membrane, while others cannot
What is diffusion?
- It's random
- It's Passive (no energy requited)
- Moves from Hi to Low concentration
- Eventually reaches equilibrium
- With or W/o a membrane
- Movement through the membrane via protein passages
- moves from Hi to Low
- reaches equilibrium
- With a membrane
What is Osmosis?
- movement of water down its concentration gradient across a membrane.
- high to low
- with a membrane
- with or w/o protein passages
- reaches equilibrium
solutes are the smae inside as they are outside the cell.
concentration of solutes is greater outside V. inside, water leaves the cell and the cell shrinks.
- W/ Cell wall: called plasmolysis
- W/O cell wall: called crenation
- "cells placed in hypertonic solution lose water"
- If solutes are greater inside V. Outside
- H20 enters the cell, could cause it to burst (if no cell wall)
- Has a cell membrance could increase turger pressure
- Movement of molecules against their concentration gradient (low to Hi)
- With a membrane
- Requires energy
- use of proteins called gated channels or ports
- Delivery of fluid or larger particles inside the cell
- Requires energy and membrane
- 2 different types
- Exocytosis, endocytosis
- move stuff into the cell
- 3 different types
- a. Phagocytosis: large particles
- b. Pinocytosis: liquids
- c. Receptor mediated endocytosis: specific things brought in via receptors in membrane
Moves stuff out of cell
- Measures a persons energy use
- different times or day require different amounts of energy
- for example: sleeping requires less than exercising
Basal metabolic rate
what effects it?
- Resting energy use (awake, alert, no activity)
- things that effect a persons BMR:
- 1. Genetics
- 2. muscle mass
- 3. body weight
- 4. age
- 5. gender
- 6. thyroid function
- 7. nutritional status/diet
How many calories should you consume a day?
- X wt you want to be by 11.
- + calories burned during exercise
How can you lose weight
- Reduce caloric intake
How can you gain weight?
Increase calories and still exercise
How much body fat?
- Women: 12-32% (22% avg)
- Men: 3-29% (24% avg)
- Body mass index
- calculating using height and weight
- determines body fat and its associated health risks
- Healthy range (20-25)
- If not in range might have halth problems.
Problems with BMI
- Desnt account for age, gender and body frame
- 1/4 misclassified
- can't tell difference between body fat and lean muscle mass
- BMI > 30
- Health risks: diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, joint problems and cancers.
- Disorder of carbohydrate metabolism
- either not enough insulin, or body not responding to it properly
- level of glucose in blood rises
Secreted by pancreas; to trigger cells to use glucose for energy
Type II diabetes
- Body doesn't produce enough insulin or body resistant to insulin
- adult onset diabetes (no longer true)
- Obesity--> lack exercise
- often fixed w/ diet and exercise
- sometimes injections
- 25.8M people in US w/ Diabetes (8.3%)
- 80% ppl with Type II are obese
- #7 leading cause of death
- accounts for 11% of health care costs
- $174 billion total cost
- Fat cells require O2 + other nutrients
- as fat cells increase, so does the need for O2
- Increased blood necessary to be pumped to fat cells
- heart must work harder to keep blood volume high
- puts more pressure on the blood pressure walls
- Obesity leads to high HR, which increases BP
- obesity puts stress on heart to work too hard, 6X more likely to have a MI
- high BP damages lining of vessels
- Cholesterol gets deposited
- a. leads to artheriosclerosis
- b. artery walls get narrow
- Reduced blood flow leads to chest pain and a possible heart attack
- Heart is a muscle, no oxyen and it can die
- fat deposits cause artery walls in brain to narrow
- Reduced blood flow causes a stroke
- brain w/o O2 can die
- #1 killer in US
- 25% ppl in Us die from CVD each year
- 36% ppl have CVD
- overweight individuals at higher risk, 1.5-2.4% more likely, due to lack of exercise