bio 110

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  1. What are 2 major micronutrients
    Vitamins and minerals
  2. What are Vitamins?

    2 main Functions?

    2 main categories?
    Organic Substances (carbon)

    coenymes and help absorb other nutrients

    water/fat soluble
  3. What are minerals?

    inorganic substances (w/o carbon)

    • Fluid balance (na+)
    • muscle contraction (K+)
    • allows nerve impulses to conduct
    • bone & teeth growth (Ca+)
  4. Example of Vitamins and Minerals?
    • Vitamins
    •   Water soluble: Thiamin, Riboflavin, folic acid, B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, C, Niacin
    •    Fat soluble: A, E, D, K
    • Minerals: Calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur
  5. Procesed foods Vs. whole foods
    Processed: micronutrients removed

    • Whole: not much processed
    •   better for healthy diet
    •   contain vitamins & minerals & antioxidants
  6. What are antioxidants? Where are they found and function?
    • Present in whole foods
    • protect celss from damage caused by free radicals
    • thought to have a role in disease prevention
    • Examples: Beta-carotene, lutein, lytopene, selenium, vitamins A,B,C
  7. Harvard School or Public Health food plate
  8. Why does the body need food?
  9. Why is energy necessary?
    For the body to function
  10. What is the general pathway for food to travel?
    • 1) Mouth
    • 2) Esophogas
    • 3) Stomach
    • 4) small intestine
    • 5) larger intestine
    • 6) anus
  11. Mouth
    • Uses salive to breakdwon food
    • breaksdown enzymes into carbohydrates
  12. Esophogas
    Moves products to stomach
  13. Stomach
    Gastric juices breakdown food
  14. Small intestines
    • bile, most digestion takes place here
    • especially fats, nutrients abosrbed here
  15. Anus
    Eliminates wastes
  16. Large intestine
    • waters absorbed, vitamins absorbed
    • Indigestibale material compacted and stored
  17. How do nutrients get to cells?
    • absorbption takes place in the small intestine
    • Transported by bloodstream
  18. What is cellular respiration?
    Process of converting nutrients + oxygen into C02, H20 and ATP
  19. What Organelle does cellular respiration take place in?
  20. The following biological molecules metabolize into what? and whats the order?
    •  Protein: Amino acids, broken down after carb and fats (3rd)
    •  Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, broken down and used for ATP (1st)
    •  Fats: glycerol and fatty acids, broken down for ATP after carbs (2nd)
    • 1. Base tube
    • 2. nosepiece
    • 3. Objective lens
    • 4.
    • 5.
    • 6. stage clips
    • 7. Iris Diaphram
    • 8. Light source
    • 9. eyepiece
    • 10. arm
    • 11.stage
    • 12. course focus
    • 13. Fine focus
    • 14. Base
    • Answers descending from L-R
    • Cell membrane
    • lysosomes
    • nucleus
    • nucleolus
    • nuclear membrane
    • vacuole
    • mitochondria
    • cytoplasm
    • Rough ER
    • Smooth ER
    • Ribosomes
    • golgi body
  21. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
    Prokaryote: lack membrane, small, simple structure

    Eukaryote: Membrane w/ nucleus, organelles and complex structure
  22. Plasma membrane
    Phospholipid bilayer forms selectively permeable membrane.
  23. Cytoplasm
    The fluid that is inside the cell
  24. nucleus
    • contains DNA
    • contains nucleolus
    • Surrounded by envelope, nucleor pores
  25. ribosomes
    Protein manufacturers
  26. Endoplasmic reticulum
    •  Rough ER: Ribosomes on it, synthesizes proteins
    •  Smooth ER: no ribosomes, synthesizes lipids
  27. Golgi Aparatus
    • modifies proteins
    • packaged in vesicles
  28. Lysosomes
    Digest and recycle molecules and destroy damaged organelles
  29. cytoskeleton
    • used for movement (cilia)
    • used for shape
  30. mitochondria
    • releases ATP for food
    • Where cellular respiration takes place
  31. chloroplast
    uses light energy to synthesize carbs (plant cell only)
  32. cell wall
    • provides structure and support
    • plant cell only
  33. central vacuole
    • stores water and gives shape
    • plant cell only
  34. Differences in plant and animal cells
    •  Plant: chloroplasts, cell wall of cellulose, central vacuole
    •  Animal: lysosomes
  35. What is the Fluid mosaic model?
    the proteins on the membrane are moving around
  36. Phospholipid bilayer
    a double layer of phospholipid molecules whose " hydrophilic" heads are facing outwards, and it's "hydrophobic" tails face inwards. 
  37. phospholipid
    • head is a glycerol, hydrophilic,
    • tails are fatty acids, hydrophobic
  38. what does selectively permeable mean?
    that some things are allowed to croos the membrane, while others cannot
  39. What is diffusion?
    •  It's random
    •  It's Passive (no energy requited)
    •  Moves from Hi to Low concentration
    •  Eventually reaches equilibrium
    •  With or W/o a membrane
  40. Facilitated Diffusion?
    •  Movement through the membrane via protein passages
    •  passive
    •  moves from Hi to Low
    •  reaches equilibrium
    •  With a membrane
  41. What is Osmosis?
    • movement of water down its concentration gradient across a membrane. 
    •  high to low
    •  with a membrane
    •  passive
    •  with or w/o protein passages
    •  reaches equilibrium
  42. Isotonic solution?
    solutes are the smae inside as they are outside the cell. 

  43. Hypertonic solution?
  44. concentration of solutes is greater outside V. inside, water leaves the cell and the cell shrinks.
    •  W/ Cell wall: called plasmolysis
    •  W/O cell wall: called crenation
    • "cells placed in hypertonic solution lose water"
  45. Hypotonic Solution?
    • If solutes are greater inside V. Outside
    • H20 enters the cell, could cause it to burst (if no cell wall)
    • Has a cell membrance could increase turger pressure
  46. ACtive transport?
    • Movement of molecules against their concentration gradient (low to Hi)
    • With a membrane
    • Requires energy
    • use of proteins called gated channels or ports
  47. Bulk transport?
    • Delivery of fluid or larger particles inside the cell
    • Requires energy and membrane
    • 2 different types
    • Exocytosis, endocytosis
  48. Endocytosis
    • move stuff into the cell
    • 3 different types
    • a. Phagocytosis: large particles
    • b. Pinocytosis: liquids
    • c. Receptor mediated endocytosis: specific things brought in via receptors in membrane
  49. Exocytosis
    Moves stuff out of cell
  50. Metabolic Rate
    • Measures a persons energy use
    • different times or day require different amounts of energy
    • for example: sleeping requires less than exercising
  51. Basal metabolic rate
    what effects it?
    • Resting energy use (awake, alert, no activity)
    • things that effect a persons BMR:
    • 1. Genetics
    • 2. muscle mass
    • 3. body weight
    • 4. age
    • 5. gender
    • 6. thyroid function
    • 7. nutritional status/diet
  52. How many calories should you consume a day?
    • X wt you want to be by 11. 
    • + calories burned during exercise
  53. How can you lose weight
    • Reduce caloric intake
    • exercise
  54. How can you gain weight?
    Increase calories and still exercise
  55. How much body fat?
    • Women: 12-32% (22% avg)
    • Men: 3-29% (24% avg)
  56. BMI
    • Body mass index
    • calculating using height and weight
    • determines body fat and its associated health risks
    • Healthy range (20-25)
    • If not in range might have halth problems.
  57. Problems with BMI
    • Desnt account for age, gender and body frame
    • 1/4 misclassified
    • can't tell difference between body fat and lean muscle mass
  58. Obesity
    • BMI > 30
    • Health risks: diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, joint problems and cancers.
  59. Diabetes:
    • Disorder of carbohydrate metabolism
    • either not enough insulin, or body not responding to it properly
    • level of glucose in blood rises
  60. Insulin
    Secreted by pancreas; to trigger cells to use glucose for energy
  61. Type II diabetes
    • Body doesn't produce enough insulin or body resistant to insulin
    • adult onset diabetes (no longer true)
    • Obesity--> lack exercise
    • often fixed w/ diet and exercise
    • sometimes injections
  62. Diabetes statistics
    • 25.8M people in US w/ Diabetes (8.3%)
    • 80% ppl with Type II are obese
    • #7 leading cause of death
    • accounts for 11% of health care costs
    • $174 billion total cost
  63. Hypertension
    • Fat cells require O2 + other nutrients
    • as fat cells increase, so does the need for O2
    • Increased blood necessary to be pumped to fat cells
    • heart must work harder to keep blood volume high
    • puts more pressure on the blood pressure walls
    • Obesity leads to high HR, which increases BP
    • obesity puts stress on heart to work too hard, 6X more likely to have a MI
  64. Heart attack
    • high BP damages lining of vessels
    • Cholesterol gets deposited
    • a. leads to artheriosclerosis
    • b. artery walls get narrow
    • Reduced blood flow leads to chest pain and a possible heart attack
    • Heart is a muscle, no oxyen and it can die
  65. Stroke
    • fat deposits cause artery walls in brain to narrow
    • Reduced blood flow causes a stroke
    • brain w/o O2 can die
  66. CVD statistics
    • #1 killer in US
    • 25% ppl in Us die from CVD each year
    • 36% ppl have CVD
    • overweight individuals at higher risk, 1.5-2.4% more likely, due to lack of exercise

Card Set Information

bio 110
2013-03-09 07:22:46
bio exam

exam 2
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