Card Set Information
What are 2 major micronutrients
Vitamins and minerals
What are Vitamins?
2 main Functions?
2 main categories?
Organic Substances (carbon)
coenymes and help absorb other nutrients
What are minerals?
inorganic substances (w/o carbon)
Fluid balance (na+)
muscle contraction (K+)
allows nerve impulses to conduct
bone & teeth growth (Ca+)
Example of Vitamins and Minerals?
: Thiamin, Riboflavin, folic acid, B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, C, Niacin
: A, E, D, K
: Calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur
Procesed foods Vs. whole foods
: micronutrients removed
: not much processed
better for healthy diet
contain vitamins & minerals &
What are antioxidants? Where are they found and function?
Present in whole foods
protect celss from damage caused by free radicals
thought to have a role in disease prevention
: Beta-carotene, lutein, lytopene, selenium, vitamins A,B,C
Harvard School or Public Health food plate
Why does the body need food?
Why is energy necessary?
For the body to function
What is the general pathway for food to travel?
4) small intestine
5) larger intestine
Uses salive to breakdwon food
breaksdown enzymes into carbohydrates
Moves products to stomach
Gastric juices breakdown food
bile, most digestion takes place here
especially fats, nutrients abosrbed here
waters absorbed, vitamins absorbed
Indigestibale material compacted and stored
How do nutrients get to cells?
absorbption takes place in the small intestine
Transported by bloodstream
What is cellular respiration?
Process of converting nutrients + oxygen into C0
What Organelle does cellular respiration take place in?
The following biological molecules metabolize into what? and whats the order?
: Amino acids, broken down after carb and fats (3rd)
: monosaccharides, broken down and used for ATP (1st)
: glycerol and fatty acids, broken down for ATP after carbs (2nd)
1. Base tube
3. Objective lens
6. stage clips
7. Iris Diaphram
8. Light source
12. course focus
13. Fine focus
Answers descending from L-R
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Prokaryote: lack membrane, small, simple structure
Eukaryote: Membrane w/ nucleus, organelles and complex structure
Phospholipid bilayer forms
The fluid that is inside the cell
Surrounded by envelope, nucleor pores
: Ribosomes on it, synthesizes proteins
: no ribosomes, synthesizes lipids
packaged in vesicles
Digest and recycle molecules and destroy damaged organelles
used for movement (cilia)
used for shape
releases ATP for food
Where cellular respiration takes place
uses light energy to synthesize carbs (plant cell only)
provides structure and support
plant cell only
stores water and gives shape
plant cell only
Differences in plant and animal cells
: chloroplasts, cell wall of cellulose, central vacuole
What is the Fluid mosaic model?
the proteins on the membrane are moving around
a double layer of phospholipid molecules whose " hydrophilic" heads are facing outwards, and it's "hydrophobic" tails face inwards.
head is a glycerol, hydrophilic,
tails are fatty acids, hydrophobic
what does selectively permeable mean?
that some things are allowed to croos the membrane, while others cannot
What is diffusion?
It's Passive (no energy requited)
Moves from Hi to Low concentration
Eventually reaches equilibrium
With or W/o a membrane
Movement through the membrane via protein passages
moves from Hi to Low
With a membrane
What is Osmosis?
movement of water down its concentration gradient across a membrane.
high to low
with a membrane
with or w/o protein passages
solutes are the smae inside as they are outside the cell.
concentration of solutes is greater outside V. inside, water leaves the cell and the cell shrinks.
W/ Cell wall
: called plasmolysis
W/O cell wall
: called crenation
"cells placed in hypertonic solution lose water"
If solutes are greater inside V. Outside
H20 enters the cell, could cause it to burst (if no cell wall)
Has a cell membrance could increase turger pressure
Movement of molecules against their concentration gradient (low to Hi)
With a membrane
use of proteins called gated channels or ports
Delivery of fluid or larger particles inside the cell
Requires energy and membrane
2 different types
move stuff into the cell
3 different types
: large particles
Receptor mediated endocytosis
: specific things brought in via receptors in membrane
Moves stuff out of cell
Measures a persons energy use
different times or day require different amounts of energy
: sleeping requires less than exercising
Basal metabolic rate
what effects it?
Resting energy use (awake, alert, no activity)
things that effect a persons BMR:
2. muscle mass
3. body weight
6. thyroid function
7. nutritional status/diet
How many calories should you consume a day?
X wt you want to be by 11.
+ calories burned during exercise
How can you lose weight
Reduce caloric intake
How can you gain weight?
Increase calories and still exercise
How much body fat?
: 12-32% (22% avg)
: 3-29% (24% avg)
Body mass index
calculating using height and weight
determines body fat and its associated health risks
Healthy range (20-25)
If not in range might have halth problems.
Problems with BMI
Desnt account for age, gender and body frame
can't tell difference between body fat and lean muscle mass
: diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, joint problems and cancers.
Disorder of carbohydrate metabolism
either not enough
, or body not responding to it properly
level of glucose in blood rises
Secreted by pancreas; to trigger cells to use glucose for energy
Type II diabetes
Body doesn't produce enough insulin or body resistant to insulin
adult onset diabetes (no longer true)
Obesity--> lack exercise
often fixed w/ diet and exercise
25.8M people in US w/ Diabetes (8.3%)
80% ppl with Type II are obese
#7 leading cause of death
accounts for 11% of health care costs
$174 billion total cost
Fat cells require O
+ other nutrients
as fat cells increase, so does the need for O
Increased blood necessary to be pumped to fat cells
heart must work harder to keep blood volume high
puts more pressure on the blood pressure walls
Obesity leads to high HR, which increases BP
obesity puts stress on heart to work too hard, 6X more likely to have a MI
high BP damages lining of vessels
Cholesterol gets deposited
a. leads to artheriosclerosis
b. artery walls get narrow
Reduced blood flow leads to chest pain and a possible heart attack
Heart is a muscle, no oxyen and it can die
fat deposits cause artery walls in brain to narrow
Reduced blood flow causes a stroke
brain w/o O
#1 killer in US
25% ppl in Us die from CVD each year
36% ppl have CVD
overweight individuals at higher risk, 1.5-2.4% more likely, due to lack of exercise