ch 4 applied psych cjs

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ch 4 applied psych cjs
2010-05-23 19:54:06
crim psych

ch 4
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  1. psychology
    examines individual and human behavior
  2. psychiatry
    branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of mental disorders, including personality disorders
  3. neuroses
    mild personality disorders
  4. psychoses
    very serious personality disorders
  5. psychogenic theories
    behavioral explanations of the mind's functioning
  6. psychoanalytic theories
    • suspends the notion of free will
    • criminals suffer from arrested or interrupted psychological development
  7. deviant personality theories
  8. conscious
    phenomena about which we are currently aware
  9. preconscious
    thoughts and memories, just below the surface, that we can easily call into conscious awareness
  10. unconscious
    repressed memories and attendant emotions that we can pull into the conscious level only with much effort
  11. psychosexual maturity
    • accumulation of repressed memories and emotions as we pass through life
    • stages of psychosexual development
    • unconscious
  12. psychosexual development stages
    • 1. the oral stage (birth to 18 months)
    • 2. the anal stage (1-3 years)
    • 3. genital stage (3-5 years)
    • 4. latent stage (5 to adolescence0
    • 5. adolscence/adulthood stage (13 to death)
  13. cathexis
    psychic energy
  14. fixation
    when cathexis is strong to an object of psychosexual attachment
  15. regression
    person reverts to a previous mode of gratification
  16. psychic drives
    • 1. denial
    • 2. displacement
    • 3. repression
    • 4. reaction formation
    • 5. projection
    • 6. sublimination
  17. psychic development
    • 1. id---impulses or instincts
    • 2. ego---great mediator
    • 3. superego---conscince-type mechanism
  18. primary process
    tends toward immediate and direct gratification of the id impulses
  19. secondary process
    shifts focus from orginal object or method of discharge when something--including superego--blocks a drive
  20. denial
    state exists when an individual refuses to acknowledge a painful reality, resulting in a distortion of reality
  21. displacement
    individual expresses unacceptable id impulses through an acceptable outlet
  22. repression
    ego prevents unwanted id impulses, memories, desire, or wish-fulfilling fantasies from entering the conscious-thought level
  23. reaction formation
    allwos an individual to replace socially unacceptable behavior with behavior that is socially acceptable
  24. projection
    allows an individual to attribute her or his own wishes or impulses to others
  25. sublimination
    individual who cannot experience a continous drive in its primary form and employs this mechanism
  26. phobias
    unreasonable fears
  27. psychoanalysis
    aims the patient at giving up the repressions that belong to his early life and replace them with reaction of a sort that would correspond better to a physically mature condition
  28. free association
    • patient verbally expresses ideas as they come to mind
    • to exposed repressed matieral
  29. dream interpretation
    • encourages patients to recall and analyze dreams
    • hold key to person's makeup--frued
  30. transference
    patient develops a negative or positive emotional attitude toward the psychoanalyst.
  31. challenges of pschoanalytic arguments
    • 1. operational def are unclear
    • 2. diagnosis is subjective
    • 3. small samples are problematic
    • 4. psychoanalytical theories are examples of the tautological trap
  32. figure 4.1
  33. moral insanity
    • prichard
    • term used to describe people who has a morbid perversion of the natural feelings, affections, inclinations, temper, habits, moral dispositions, and natural impulses w/o any remarkable disorder or defect of the intellect or knowing and reasoning faculties with no illusions or hallucinations
  34. psychopathic inferiority
    • people who had moral and emotional aberrations derived from congenital factors
    • koch
  35. psychopathic personalities
    • kraepelin
    • wicked offenders
    • "enemies of society"
    • moral component
  36. psychopath
    • (cleckley)
    • grandiose
    • callous
    • superficial
    • manipulative
  37. personality theory
    • assumption in the ways in which people express their habitual patterns and behavioral qualities
    • holds key to understanding behavior
  38. sociopathy
    • refers to mental condition psychologists classify as
    • psychopathic personality disorder (PPD)
  39. psychopathy hypothesis or sociopathy hypothesis
    condition of psychological abnormality in which there is niether the overt apperance of psychosis nor neurosis, but there is a chronic abnormality or response to the environment
  40. arousal theory
    • ellis
    • provides biological explanation for antisocial behavior and asocial conduct
    • looks to stimulation levels sought by individuals
  41. reticular activating (RAS)
    the part of the brain responsible for attentiveness to the surrounding world
  42. antisocial behavior disorder (ASBD)
  43. antisocial personality disorder (APD)
  44. PCL-R psychopathy checklist revised
    20 item rating scale based on semistructed interviews, case history information, and specific diagnostic criteria related to each item
  45. challenges / psychopathic arguement
    • 1. there is little consensus about which def of psychopathy to use
    • 2. concepts drawn from the theory have low prospective prediction power
    • 3. the measurement techniques seem prone to circularity
    • 4. psersonality theories are prone to tautologies
  46. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    California Personality Inventory (CPI)
    Rorschach Inkblot Test
    Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
    • psychological tests
    • goal is to identify "crime personality" markers or characteristics
  47. psycopathic deviation (PD) scale
  48. police personality
    • describes undesired police characteristics
    • cheif one is authoritarianism
  49. authoritarianism
    refers to a personality type characterized by undemocratic tendencies, cycnicism, and a readiness to condemn others soley based on race or ethnicity
  50. dogmatism
    • closed minded beliefs about reality centered on an abosulte authority
    • provides framework for intolerance and qulaified tolerance
  51. table 4.1