Psy411

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loving.life1026
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Psy411
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2013-03-04 12:55:53
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  1. 4 Contributions of Lightner Witmer
    • Contributions:
    • 1. The Psychological Clinical Journal
    •     -First to think, I should write this down, publish and share
    • 2. Founder of School Psy.
    •     -Team Approach - worked with physician and social worker
    • 3. Founder of Clinical Psy.
    • 4. Used for prevention as well as treatment
  2. What caused Clinical Psy?
    • Rise in "insane asylums" in early 1900s because of industrialization and population growth (close quarters).
    • They became too full and developed a need to move people out of the insane asylums
    • Clinical Psy born.
  3. Lightner Witmer
    • Most common cases were learning disabilities (developmental delays)
    • Worked alone at first, eventually had to hire assistants
    • Developed speciality clinics due to emerging patterns in patients
    •     1. Speech Clinic
    •     2. Industrial Psy. (Vocational Guidance)
    •     3. College Counseling Centers
  4. Why Psy. of Business?
    • There was a need for advertising due to industrialization and surplus inventory.
    •      Surplus Inventory - already made product waiting to be sold
  5. Harlow Gale
    • First to attempt to gather data on advertising
    • Sent out 200 surveys, only got back 20
    •      Because they were 20 pages long
    • First and last attempt
  6. Walter Scott
    • Founder of I/O psy
    • Asked to write a series of articles
    •     First 12 in book - "Theory of Advertising"
    •     Second 20 in book - "Psy. of Advertising"
    •           Based on no research, just his psy. knowledge
    • Proposed 2 basic advertising techniques that deal with suggestion:
    •      1. Direct command
    •      2. Return coupon
    • He also promoted mental imagery in advertising
  7. Harry Hollingworth
    • Research with return coupons
    • First to study buying behavior
  8. Munsterbug
    • Pro-Germany during war - hated by Americans
    • His main book - "Psy. & Industrial Efficiency"
    •     Match skills of worker to demands of job
    • Wrote - "On the Witness Stand"
    •     Research on jury decision
  9. Lillian Gilbreth
    • Books for homemakers
    • Conducted research on housewives
    • Did research on how to work in the home when diabled
    • First woman in American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    • First woman elected to the National Academy of Engineers
  10. Why Vocational Guidance?
    • Needed this because of dropouts and delinquincy rates
    • Some felt it was the duty of school, not psy.
  11. Frank Parsons
    • Proposed 3 things:
    •     1. Knowledge of yourself
    •     2. Knowledge of vocations
    •     3. Knowledge of the relationship 1 & 2
  12. Henry Goddard
    • He wanted an intelligence test that would classify children who are "retarded" so they could get special help
    • Began to work with Binet, altered it to fit his purpose
  13. Lewis Terman
    • Adapted test - Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
    • Used for gifted students
  14. First Intelligence Tests
    • Army Alpha
    • Army Beta
    • Purpose: Be able to put people in correct position
  15. Freud's Early Years
    • He was a trained neurologist
    • Influenced by Jean-Martin Charcot in two ways:
    •    1. Said "it's always about the genitals"
    •    2. Way of teaching, used inclusive discussions
  16. Joseph Bruer
    Catharsis: Bringing issues to surface and talking about them fixes histeria
  17. Importance of Psychoanalysis
    • 1. Method of treatment
    • 2. A theory of neurosis
    • 3. Theory of the normal mind
  18. Theory of the normal mind
    • Theory of personality
    •   Id - pleasure principle
    •   Ego - reality principle
    •   Superego - moral compass
  19. Theory of neurosis
    • Overwhelming demands on id, ego, superego causes anxiety
    • 3 Types:
    •    1. Neurotic anxiety
    •    2. Moral anxiety
    •    3. Objective anxiety
    • Coping - defense mechanisms
  20. Neurotic anxiety
    Threat to id part of personality
  21. Moral anxiety
    Restrictions on superego
  22. Objective anxiety
    External threats to you in general
  23. Oedipus Complex
    • have to deal with anxiety during current stage or develop neurosis
    • ties Freud to Theory of Neurosis
  24. Psychoanalysis of Method
    • 2 major treatment methods to uncover the unconcious:
    •     1. Free Association
    •     2. Dream Analysis
  25. Free Association
    Talk about everything and things slip out (Freudian slip)
  26. Dream Analysis
    • Manifest - actual content of dream
    • Latent Content - hidden meaning of dream
  27. Dream Repression
    • Freud believed true meaning of dreams were hidden
    • 2 parts:
    •    1. Positive - helpful
    •    2. Negative - blocked therapy
  28. Freud's Travel to America
    • With: Carl Jung and Sandor Ferenczi
    • There for a conference, gave lectures
    • Nervous about how America would recieve his ideas on sex
  29. How has psychoanalysis made a mark on clinical psy?
    Development of assessments like the TAT and Rorschach Inkblot Test
  30. What are 3 major issues with psychoanalysis?
    • 1. All anectodal
    • 2. Only used a limited # of case studies in small area of Austria
    • 3. Violates scientific method - can't be proved wrong
  31. 3 major players in Neo-Freudian
    • 1. Alfred Adler
    • 2. Carl Jung
    • 3. Karen Horney
  32. Alfred Adler
    • Individual Psy. - emphasis on Social determinents
    • Founded "Society for Free Psychoanalysis"
    •     Today: "Society for Individual Psy."
    • First student to leave
  33. 3 things individuals strive for (according to Adler)
    • 1. Superiority over others
    • 2. Mastery of their environment
    • 3. Perfection
  34. 3 contributions from Adler's individual psy.
    • 1. inferiority complex
    • 2. birth order matters
    • 3. power motivation
  35. 2 parts of personality (according to Jung)
    • 1. Personal unconscious
    • 2. Collective unconscious
  36. 1913
    • Important for 2 reasons:
    • 1. The first modern art show
    •     Big deal, something being done for creativity
    • 2. Watson gave lecture at Columbia Univ.
  37. Watson's background
    • Alcoholic dad and devoted Christian mother
    • She pressured him into becoming a minister
    • When she died he switched to true calling but in poverty
    • Needed money to get through grad school so took odd jobs... One being watching rats in a lab
  38. Big names in comparative psy.
    • Darwin
    • Romanes
    • Morgan
    • Thorndike
    • Pavlov
  39. Darwin
    First to connect humans and animals
  40. Romanes
    • Introspection by analogy
    •     Closet to human, more strength in analogy
  41. Morgan
    • Morgan's Cannon
    • His experiments:
    •      Manipulate environment to see how animals react
  42. Thorndike
    • Law of Effect - Law of Reinforcement
    • Puzzle box
    • Instrumental Conditioning
    •     Operant Conditioning
  43. Pavlov
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Dogs
  44. Watson's 2 main critiques of psy.
    • 1. study of mental processes
    • 2. methodology
  45. What did Watson like about psychology?
    • 1. Reaction time method
    • 2. Ebbinghaus method
    • 3. Pavlov's methods (really likes)
  46. Watson's three main emotions:
    • 1. Fear
    • 2. Love
    • 3. Rage
  47. Watson's most famous experiment
    Little Albert
  48. Psychological Review
    Necessary because people outside of Hall's lab needed a place to publish
  49. Watson's fall from grace
    • Had an affair with Reyner (fellow psychologist working on Albert)
    • Reyner died at age 36
    • He never recovered, became a recluse
  50. 3 main names in Neo-Behaviorism
    • 1. Toleman
    • 2. Hull
    • 3. Skinner
  51. Toleman
    • Cognitive Behavior
    • Animal's behavior purposeful, goal directed
    • Did not believe in S-R learning?
    •     NO.  Believed in S-O-R learning, there is something else between
  52. Toleman's three main contributions
    • 1. Learning/Performance distinction
    • 2. Latent learning
    • 3. Place learning/Response learners
  53. Learning/Performance distinction
    Performance not always perfect measure of learning
  54. Latent learning
    Learning without even realizing
  55. Place learning/Response learners
    He could train rats to go to correct location based on location
  56. Hull's Hypothesis
    Behavior is governed by laws
  57. 2 major contributions of Deductive Behaviorism
    • 1. Drive reduction theory
    • 2. Habit strength
  58. Skinner
    • Experimental analysis of behavior
    •     Wants to predict and control behavior by understanding
    • Operant Conditioning
    • S-R - WRONG
    • R - Consequences - RIGHT
    • Only used one or two subjects
    • Had a hard time publishing because so radical, not accepted until 60s
    • Radical Behaviorism
  59. 4 ways Skinner applies psy. to public
    • 1. Pigeon guided missles
    • 2. Designed better cribs - no one wanted
    • 3. Teaching machines/programmed learning
    • 4. Views on punishment
    •     (thought it was overused in school and home)
  60. APA versus professions
    • For over 50 years APA had one goal, to promote psy. as a science
    • This hurts jobs outside of academia because there is no support, recognition, or rules for professions coming out of psy.
  61. Characteristics of Profession
    • 1. Specialized knowledge
    • 2. High standards of practice
    • 3. Code of ethics
    • 4. Continuing education
    • 5. Public service
  62. Psy. and WWI
    • Intelligence test
    • Selection test - help choose officers
    • "Shell shock" - help when return from war
    • Requested a test that would weed out weak, psy. argued the war caused shell shock
  63. How did WWI help psy?
    • 1. Provided jobs in applied fields
    • 2. Psy was seen as successful
    •     This helped promote psy. to public
    •     Journal of Applied Psy. created in result
  64. What was there a need to classify psy?
    So public could tell who the real psy. were

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