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4 Contributions of Lightner Witmer
The Psychological Clinical
-First to think, I should write this down, publish and share
2. Founder of School Psy.
- worked with physician and social worker
3. Founder of Clinical Psy.
4. Used for
as well as treatment
What caused Clinical Psy?
Rise in "insane asylums" in early 1900s because of industrialization and population growth (close quarters).
They became too full and developed a need to move people out of the insane asylums
Clinical Psy born.
Most common cases were learning disabilities (developmental delays)
Worked alone at first, eventually had to hire assistants
Developed speciality clinics due to emerging patterns in patients
1. Speech Clinic
2. Industrial Psy. (Vocational Guidance)
3. College Counseling Centers
Why Psy. of Business?
There was a need for advertising due to industrialization and surplus inventory.
Surplus Inventory -
already made product waiting to be sold
First to attempt to gather data on advertising
Sent out 200 surveys, only got back 20
Because they were 20 pages long
First and last attempt
Founder of I/O psy
Asked to write a series of articles
First 12 in book - "Theory of Advertising"
Second 20 in book - "Psy. of Advertising"
Based on no research, just his psy. knowledge
Proposed 2 basic advertising techniques that deal with suggestion:
1. Direct command
2. Return coupon
He also promoted mental imagery in advertising
Research with return coupons
First to study buying behavior
Pro-Germany during war - hated by Americans
His main book - "Psy. & Industrial Efficiency"
Match skills of worker to demands of job
Wrote - "On the Witness Stand"
Research on jury decision
Books for homemakers
Conducted research on housewives
Did research on how to work in the home when diabled
First woman in American Society of Mechanical Engineers
First woman elected to the National Academy of Engineers
Why Vocational Guidance?
Needed this because of dropouts and delinquincy rates
Some felt it was the duty of school, not psy.
Proposed 3 things:
1. Knowledge of yourself
2. Knowledge of vocations
3. Knowledge of the relationship 1 & 2
He wanted an intelligence test that would classify children who are "retarded" so they could get special help
Began to work with Binet, altered it to fit his purpose
Adapted test - Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
Used for gifted students
First Intelligence Tests
: Be able to put people in correct position
Freud's Early Years
He was a trained neurologist
Influenced by Jean-Martin Charcot in two ways:
1. Said "it's always about the genitals"
2. Way of teaching, used inclusive discussions
Bringing issues to surface and talking about them fixes histeria
Importance of Psychoanalysis
1. Method of treatment
2. A theory of neurosis
3. Theory of the normal mind
Theory of the normal mind
Theory of personality
Id - pleasure principle
Ego - reality principle
Superego - moral compass
Theory of neurosis
Overwhelming demands on id, ego, superego causes anxiety
1. Neurotic anxiety
2. Moral anxiety
3. Objective anxiety
Threat to id part of personality
Restrictions on superego
External threats to you in general
have to deal with anxiety during current stage or develop neurosis
ties Freud to Theory of Neurosis
Psychoanalysis of Method
2 major treatment methods to uncover the unconcious:
1. Free Association
2. Dream Analysis
Talk about everything and things slip out (Freudian slip)
actual content of dream
Latent Content -
hidden meaning of dream
Freud believed true meaning of dreams were hidden
1. Positive - helpful
2. Negative - blocked therapy
Freud's Travel to America
: Carl Jung and Sandor Ferenczi
There for a conference, gave lectures
Nervous about how America would recieve his ideas on sex
How has psychoanalysis made a mark on clinical psy?
Development of assessments like the TAT and Rorschach Inkblot Test
What are 3 major issues with psychoanalysis?
1. All anectodal
2. Only used a limited # of case studies in small area of Austria
3. Violates scientific method - can't be proved wrong
3 major players in Neo-Freudian
1. Alfred Adler
2. Carl Jung
3. Karen Horney
Individual Psy. -
emphasis on Social determinents
Founded "Society for Free Psychoanalysis"
: "Society for Individual Psy."
First student to leave
3 things individuals strive for (according to Adler)
1. Superiority over others
2. Mastery of their environment
3 contributions from Adler's individual psy.
1. inferiority complex
2. birth order matters
3. power motivation
2 parts of personality (according to Jung)
1. Personal unconscious
2. Collective unconscious
Important for 2 reasons:
1. The first modern art show
Big deal, something being done for creativity
2. Watson gave lecture at Columbia Univ.
Alcoholic dad and devoted Christian mother
She pressured him into becoming a minister
When she died he switched to true calling but in poverty
Needed money to get through grad school so took odd jobs... One being watching rats in a lab
Big names in comparative psy.
First to connect humans and animals
Introspection by analogy
Closet to human, more strength in analogy
Manipulate environment to see how animals react
Law of Effect - Law of Reinforcement
Watson's 2 main critiques of psy.
1. study of mental processes
What did Watson like about psychology?
1. Reaction time method
2. Ebbinghaus method
3. Pavlov's methods (really likes)
Watson's three main emotions:
Watson's most famous experiment
Necessary because people outside of Hall's lab needed a place to publish
Watson's fall from grace
Had an affair with Reyner (fellow psychologist working on Albert)
Reyner died at age 36
He never recovered, became a recluse
3 main names in Neo-Behaviorism
Animal's behavior purposeful, goal directed
Did not believe in S-R learning?
NO. Believed in S-O-R learning, there is something else between
Toleman's three main contributions
1. Learning/Performance distinction
2. Latent learning
3. Place learning/Response learners
Performance not always perfect measure of learning
Learning without even realizing
Place learning/Response learners
He could train rats to go to correct location based on location
Behavior is governed by laws
2 major contributions of Deductive Behaviorism
1. Drive reduction theory
2. Habit strength
Experimental analysis of behavior
Wants to predict and control behavior by understanding
S-R - WRONG
R - Consequences - RIGHT
Only used one or two subjects
Had a hard time publishing because so radical, not accepted until 60s
4 ways Skinner applies psy. to public
1. Pigeon guided missles
2. Designed better cribs - no one wanted
3. Teaching machines/programmed learning
4. Views on punishment
(thought it was overused in school and home)
APA versus professions
For over 50 years APA had one goal, to promote psy. as a science
This hurts jobs outside of academia because there is no support, recognition, or rules for professions coming out of psy.
Characteristics of Profession
1. Specialized knowledge
2. High standards of practice
3. Code of ethics
4. Continuing education
5. Public service
Psy. and WWI
Selection test - help choose officers
"Shell shock" - help when return from war
Requested a test that would weed out weak, psy. argued the war caused shell shock
How did WWI help psy?
1. Provided jobs in applied fields
2. Psy was seen as successful
This helped promote psy. to public
Journal of Applied Psy. created in result
What was there a need to classify psy?
So public could tell who the real psy. were