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4 Contributions of Lightner Witmer
- 1. The Psychological Clinical Journal
- -First to think, I should write this down, publish and share
- 2. Founder of School Psy.
- -Team Approach - worked with physician and social worker
- 3. Founder of Clinical Psy.
- 4. Used for prevention as well as treatment
What caused Clinical Psy?
- Rise in "insane asylums" in early 1900s because of industrialization and population growth (close quarters).
- They became too full and developed a need to move people out of the insane asylums
- Clinical Psy born.
- Most common cases were learning disabilities (developmental delays)
- Worked alone at first, eventually had to hire assistants
- Developed speciality clinics due to emerging patterns in patients
- 1. Speech Clinic
- 2. Industrial Psy. (Vocational Guidance)
- 3. College Counseling Centers
Why Psy. of Business?
- There was a need for advertising due to industrialization and surplus inventory.
- Surplus Inventory - already made product waiting to be sold
- First to attempt to gather data on advertising
- Sent out 200 surveys, only got back 20
- Because they were 20 pages long
- First and last attempt
- Founder of I/O psy
- Asked to write a series of articles
- First 12 in book - "Theory of Advertising"
- Second 20 in book - "Psy. of Advertising"
- Based on no research, just his psy. knowledge
- Proposed 2 basic advertising techniques that deal with suggestion:
- 1. Direct command
- 2. Return coupon
- He also promoted mental imagery in advertising
- Research with return coupons
- First to study buying behavior
- Pro-Germany during war - hated by Americans
- His main book - "Psy. & Industrial Efficiency"
- Match skills of worker to demands of job
- Wrote - "On the Witness Stand"
- Research on jury decision
- Books for homemakers
- Conducted research on housewives
- Did research on how to work in the home when diabled
- First woman in American Society of Mechanical Engineers
- First woman elected to the National Academy of Engineers
Why Vocational Guidance?
- Needed this because of dropouts and delinquincy rates
- Some felt it was the duty of school, not psy.
- Proposed 3 things:
- 1. Knowledge of yourself
- 2. Knowledge of vocations
- 3. Knowledge of the relationship 1 & 2
- He wanted an intelligence test that would classify children who are "retarded" so they could get special help
- Began to work with Binet, altered it to fit his purpose
- Adapted test - Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
- Used for gifted students
First Intelligence Tests
- Army Alpha
- Army Beta
- Purpose: Be able to put people in correct position
Freud's Early Years
- He was a trained neurologist
- Influenced by Jean-Martin Charcot in two ways:
- 1. Said "it's always about the genitals"
- 2. Way of teaching, used inclusive discussions
Catharsis: Bringing issues to surface and talking about them fixes histeria
Importance of Psychoanalysis
- 1. Method of treatment
- 2. A theory of neurosis
- 3. Theory of the normal mind
Theory of the normal mind
- Theory of personality
- Id - pleasure principle
- Ego - reality principle
- Superego - moral compass
Theory of neurosis
- Overwhelming demands on id, ego, superego causes anxiety
- 3 Types:
- 1. Neurotic anxiety
- 2. Moral anxiety
- 3. Objective anxiety
- Coping - defense mechanisms
Threat to id part of personality
Restrictions on superego
External threats to you in general
- have to deal with anxiety during current stage or develop neurosis
- ties Freud to Theory of Neurosis
Psychoanalysis of Method
- 2 major treatment methods to uncover the unconcious:
- 1. Free Association
- 2. Dream Analysis
Talk about everything and things slip out (Freudian slip)
- Manifest - actual content of dream
- Latent Content - hidden meaning of dream
- Freud believed true meaning of dreams were hidden
- 2 parts: 1. Positive - helpful
- 2. Negative - blocked therapy
Freud's Travel to America
- With: Carl Jung and Sandor Ferenczi
- There for a conference, gave lectures
- Nervous about how America would recieve his ideas on sex
How has psychoanalysis made a mark on clinical psy?
Development of assessments like the TAT and Rorschach Inkblot Test
What are 3 major issues with psychoanalysis?
- 1. All anectodal
- 2. Only used a limited # of case studies in small area of Austria
- 3. Violates scientific method - can't be proved wrong
3 major players in Neo-Freudian
- 1. Alfred Adler
- 2. Carl Jung
- 3. Karen Horney
- Individual Psy. - emphasis on Social determinents
- Founded "Society for Free Psychoanalysis"
- Today: "Society for Individual Psy."
- First student to leave
3 things individuals strive for (according to Adler)
- 1. Superiority over others
- 2. Mastery of their environment
- 3. Perfection
3 contributions from Adler's individual psy.
- 1. inferiority complex
- 2. birth order matters
- 3. power motivation
2 parts of personality (according to Jung)
- 1. Personal unconscious
- 2. Collective unconscious
- Important for 2 reasons:
- 1. The first modern art show
- Big deal, something being done for creativity
- 2. Watson gave lecture at Columbia Univ.
- Alcoholic dad and devoted Christian mother
- She pressured him into becoming a minister
- When she died he switched to true calling but in poverty
- Needed money to get through grad school so took odd jobs... One being watching rats in a lab
Big names in comparative psy.
First to connect humans and animals
- Introspection by analogy
- Closet to human, more strength in analogy
- Morgan's Cannon
- His experiments:
- Manipulate environment to see how animals react
- Law of Effect - Law of Reinforcement
- Puzzle box
- Instrumental Conditioning
- Operant Conditioning
- Classical Conditioning
Watson's 2 main critiques of psy.
- 1. study of mental processes
- 2. methodology
What did Watson like about psychology?
- 1. Reaction time method
- 2. Ebbinghaus method
- 3. Pavlov's methods (really likes)
Watson's three main emotions:
Watson's most famous experiment
Necessary because people outside of Hall's lab needed a place to publish
Watson's fall from grace
- Had an affair with Reyner (fellow psychologist working on Albert)
- Reyner died at age 36
- He never recovered, became a recluse
3 main names in Neo-Behaviorism
- 1. Toleman
- 2. Hull
- 3. Skinner
- Cognitive BehaviorAnimal's behavior purposeful, goal directed
- Did not believe in S-R learning?
- NO. Believed in S-O-R learning, there is something else between
Toleman's three main contributions
- 1. Learning/Performance distinction
- 2. Latent learning
- 3. Place learning/Response learners
Performance not always perfect measure of learning
Learning without even realizing
Place learning/Response learners
He could train rats to go to correct location based on location
Behavior is governed by laws
2 major contributions of Deductive Behaviorism
- 1. Drive reduction theory
- 2. Habit strength
- Experimental analysis of behavior
- Wants to predict and control behavior by understanding
- Operant Conditioning
- S-R - WRONG
- R - Consequences - RIGHT
- Only used one or two subjects
- Had a hard time publishing because so radical, not accepted until 60s
- Radical Behaviorism
4 ways Skinner applies psy. to public
- 1. Pigeon guided missles
- 2. Designed better cribs - no one wanted
- 3. Teaching machines/programmed learning
- 4. Views on punishment
- (thought it was overused in school and home)
APA versus professions
- For over 50 years APA had one goal, to promote psy. as a science
- This hurts jobs outside of academia because there is no support, recognition, or rules for professions coming out of psy.
Characteristics of Profession
- 1. Specialized knowledge
- 2. High standards of practice
- 3. Code of ethics
- 4. Continuing education
- 5. Public service
Psy. and WWI
- Intelligence test
- Selection test - help choose officers
- "Shell shock" - help when return from war
- Requested a test that would weed out weak, psy. argued the war caused shell shock
How did WWI help psy?
- 1. Provided jobs in applied fields
- 2. Psy was seen as successful
- This helped promote psy. to public
- Journal of Applied Psy. created in result
What was there a need to classify psy?
So public could tell who the real psy. were