Card Set Information
new testament midterm
Who was the key political/ military figure of the Hellenistic period?
Alexander the Great
What was the Hellenistic period and how did that impact the NT?
Greek culture = greek language too
Missionary by nature-->new modern way of life
Led to coming of Israel
New Greek bible became the standard text (Septuagint)
Who were the Ptolemies and the Selucids?
: One of Alexander's most trusted generals
Governor of Egypt
Brought hellenistic culture and ruined traditional jewish culture
Hebrew scriptures-->translated to Greek
: Ruled Babylon
Founded city of Antioch
Who were the Maccabees and why are they important to Judaism?
Outlines the history of the story of Jew's resistance to their Seleucid oppressors (resistance of Hellenism)
Retold every year at the feast of Hanukkah
When did Rome conquer?
Who was Herod the Great and when did he rule?
37-4 BC (33 years)
built a series of fortresses around Judea
heavily taxed citizens to pay for all of his buildings
Jesus was born during his reign
How did Herod’s kingdom divide and to whom did it divide?
Herod died and his three sons divided the kingdom
Who led the first revolt against Rome and why?
personal corruption and contempt for the Jews
Who led the second revolt against Rome and why?
To found a Roman colony in Jerusalem and rebuild the city with Pagan temples
5 geographical zones of Jesus' homeland
1. Coastal plain
2. Coastal hills
3. Central mountains
4. Jordan Valley
5. Eastern Plateau
Where is Galilee?
Where is the Jordan river?
Where is Emmaus?
The Coastal hills
Where were the fishing villages located?
The coastal plain
How could you tell the difference between a Pharisee and a Sadducee?
Pharisees focused on external formalities & more religious than others
Sadducees were educated elites and landowners
How would one distinguish the Essenes from the typical Jew?
lived isolated from the Gentile population and most Jewish groups
In which of the political movements of Jesus’ day would a “zealot” be found?
Jewish warriors who made their last stand in the famous siege at the mtn fortress of Masada
What are the sicarii?
an extremist splinter group of the Jewish Zealots, who attempted to expel the Romans and their partisans from Judea using concealed daggers (sicae)
What is a Samaritan and why do they not get along with the Jews?
Persians that moved in Samaria who revised the Hebrew Scriptures and assimilated w/the Israelites
B/c they assimilated w/the Israelites and built a rival temple
Describe a Herodian:
Opponents of Jesus
only saw benefits of a Jewish political life in a Roman province
Who were the major pagan sources we covered in class (and in the text) that attested to Jesus?
Who was the major Jewish historian that we referenced with respect to Jesus?
What is the Babylonian Talmud and how might that reference Jesus?
legal requirements before stoning/killing for any information that might acquit him
no one brought forward any info in the 40 days before Jesus was hung that would acquit him
Name the major second and third century Christian sources that referenced Jesus. How are these different from the first century gospels?
Gospel of Peter-->oldest form of the passion story
Gospel of Thomas-->provides sayings of Jesus that are authentic and historically reliable
HISTORICAL order of the gospels?
What are the 9 marks of the church’s success in preserving accurate accounts of Jesus’ teaching and life, according to your textbook authors?
(1) Stylistic forms of Jesus' sayings
(2) Terminology of tradition
(3) Function of the apostles
(4) Cultural role of memory
(5) Eyewitnesses & the lapse of time
(6) Written records
(7) Christian prophecy & caution
(8) Respect for the sayings of Jesus
(9) Dissimilarity of interests
What is Q?
"quelle" meaning source
"pre-gospel" collection of Jesus' sayings that stood alongside Mark
What are the elements that first century jews would have thought of when hearing that Jesus taught with or had “authority”?
conveyed by a rabbi
communicated his personality and his status to the disciple
Give some characteristics (that your authors mention) of Jesus’ teaching style?
metaphors and similes
What was a favorite and popular genre of teaching that Jesus employed?
What are some of the main defining elements of the Kingdom of God, a central theme for Jesus?
idea that God ruled and sustained universe
only rightful king of his people
How does Jesus talk about the ethics of the kingdom of God? The disciples or followers within the kingdom?
righteousness of inner life
love your enemies
repent and become a disciple
give up wealth
LOVE GOD WHOLLY
How does the cross factor into this kingdom, since it is counterproductive for your king to die?
sacrificial lamb who was slain
What does Christology mean? And what have Christians for centuries believed about Jesus?
the reflection of Jesus' earthly life due to the resurrection
his true identity
What is the setting of Matthew's gospel and his relationship to Judaism?
Palestine or Syria
Written in Hebrew dialect
His theology rejects Judaism in favor of the church
Jesus' interaction with Jewish leaders
What makes Mark’s gospel distinctly to gentiles rather than jews?
Most of his readers spoke Greek
Outlines Jewish rituals for those who don't understand Judaism
Doesn't explain who Pilate or Pharisees are
Authorship and date of Matthew
Matthew or anonymous
Authorship and date of Mark
Mark as a translator for Peter
Authorship and date of Luke and Acts
Luke - a gentile
Authorship and date of John
disciple who Jesus loved
What makes John different?
Deeper meaning of Jesus' life
Jesus as the Word of God
Word becomes flesh
Crucifixion as a royal coronation not a tragedy
What do we call Matthew, Mark, and Luke together?
Where is John's setting?
What are the two sections into which your authors split the book of John?
Ch. 1-12 Public teaching
Ch. 13-17 Private speaking
What are some of the main themes in John? Where does John affirm the deity of Jesus Christ?
God appeared to us in human form
Glory of God seen through Christ
(1) John the Baptist
(2) The person of Christ
(3) The Holy Spirit
(4) The sacraments
(5) Our future hope
Paul's world - social structure
Wives remain faithful to husbands
Husbands can do what they want
Father has all authority
Being born in Roman empire didn't make you a citizen
Born into it
Buy into it
Patrons were respected by number of clients that followed them
Humiliores were low status
Honestiores were high status
Libertini were freed men who were once slaves
Paul's world - government
Emperor (Caesar) was the supreme military authority
Senate ruled over all affairs
Provinces and vassal states showed boundaries
Cities were political and economic backbone of Roman Empire
Free cities-governed themselves
Paul's world - religion
full of idols
atheists were not common
Difference between Christians and Jews?
Neither agreed with pagans
Christians met in private houses, not synagogues
Christians believed you could worship anywhere, not just in the temple
Priesthood has hereditary for Jews
Difference between pagans and jews?
Jews only sacrifice in temple
Jews worshipped Yahweh
Difference between Christians and Pagans?
Pagans had immoral Gods (god of drunkenness)
Pagans had transactions/favors with their Gods
Pagans had to keep Gods on their side
Christians believed in self-sacrificial love
What was Paul's nickname?
Struck blind and led to Damascus
Paul's trips to Jerusalem?
Jerusalem church accepts him
Spoke about Jesus as the Messiah
Missionary to Gentiles
Arrested and imprisoned in Caesarea
authorship, date, setting of Romans?
authorship, date, setting of 1 Corinthians?
authorship, date, setting of 2 Corinthians?
authorship, date, setting of Galatians?
authorship, date, setting of Ephesians?
authorship, date, setting of Colossians?
in prison in Rome
Themes of Matthew? (2)
"fulfillment " formula
Song of God & Messiah
Themes of Luke? (3)
Jesus is new prophet of God
Jesus brings salvation & kingdom of God
Jesus cares for the outcasts of society
Themes of John? (5)
"I AM" statements
Jesus' Missionary Task
Themes of Romans? (3)
Justification by grace alone by faith alone
Salvation is for both jews and gentiles
contrast b/w 2 human communities
Themes of 1st Corinthians? (4)
Salvation by grace alone, by grace alone, in Christ alone
New creation in Christ
Abraham's example of justification by grace through faith
: defense of Christian (liberty)
Themes of Ephesians? (4)
Union w/Christ = Unity w/Church
Understandings of Church
Themes of Colossians? (3)
Christ is Lord of Creation
The sufficiency of Christ for salvation and sanctification
Living as new creations in Christ