COM225

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Author:
mzavala26
ID:
204545
Filename:
COM225
Updated:
2013-03-03 01:13:47
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TEST TERMS
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DEFINITIONS
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  1. STAGE FRIGHT
    ANXIETY OVER THE PROSPECT OF GIVING A SPEECH IN FRONT OF AN AUDIENCE
  2. ADRENALINE
    A HORMONE RELEASED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM IN RESPONSE TO PHYSICAL OR MENTAL STRESS
  3. POSITIVE NERVOUSNESS
    CONTROLLED NERVOUSNESS THAT HELPS ENERGIZE A SPEAKER FOR HER OR HIS PRESENTATION
  4. VISUALIZATION
    MENTAL IMAGING IN WHICH A SPEAKER VIVIDLY PICTURES HIMSELF OR HERSELF GIVING A SUCCESSFUL PRESENTATION
  5. CRITICAL THINKING
    FOCUSED, ORGANIZED THINKING ABOUT SUCH THINGS AS THE LOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG IDEAS, THE SOUNDNESS OF EVIDENCE, AND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FACT AND OPINION
  6. SPEAKER
    PERSON WHO IS PRESENTING AN ORAL MESSAGE TO A LISTENER
  7. MESSAGE
    WHATEVER A SPEAKER COMMUNICATES TO SOMEONE ELSE
  8. CHANNEL
    MEANS BY WHICH A MESSAGE IS COMMUNICATED
  9. LISTENER
    PERSON WHO RECEIVES THE SPEAKER'S MESSAGE
  10. FRAME OF REFERENCE
    SUM OF A PERSON'S KNOWLEDGE, EXPERIENCE, GOALS, VALUES, AND ATTITUDES. NO TWO PEOPLE CAN HAVE EXACTLY THE SAME FRAME OF REFERENCE
  11. FEEDBACK
    MESSAGES, USUALLY NONVERBAL, SENT FROM A LISTENER TO A SPEAKER
  12. INTERFERENCE
    ANYTHING THAT IMPEDES THE COMMUNICATION OF A MESSAGE. INTERFERENCE CAN BE EXTERNAL OR INTERNAL TO LISTENERS
  13. SITUATION
    TIME AND PLACE IN WHICH SPEECH COMMUNICATION OCCURS
  14. ETHNOCENTRISM
    BELIEF THAT ONE'S OWN GROUP OR CULTURE IS SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHER GROUPS OR CULTURES
  15. ETHICS
    BRANCH OF PHILOSOPHY THAT DEALS WITH ISSUES OF RIGHT AND WRONG IN HUMAN AFFAIRS
  16. ETHICAL DECISIONS
    SOUND ETHICAL DECISIONS INVOLVE WEIGHING A POTENTIAL COURSE OF ACTION AGAINST A SET OF ETHICAL STANDARDS OR GUIDELINES
  17. NAME-CALLING
    USE OF LANGUAGE TO DEFAME, DEMEAN, OR DEGRADE INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS
  18. BILL OF RIGHTS
    FIRST 10 AMENDMENTS TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION
  19. PLAGIARISM
    PRESENTING ANOTHER PERSON'S LANGUAGE OR IDEAS AS ONE'S OWN
  20. GLOBAL PLAGIARISM
    STEALING A SPEECH ENTIRELY FROM A SINGLE SOURCE AND PASSING IT OFF AS ONE'S OWN
  21. PATCHWORK PLAGIARISM
    STEALING IDEAS OR LANGUAGE FROM TWO OR THREE SOURCES AND PASSING THEM OFF AS ONE'S OWN
  22. INCREMENTAL PLAGIARISM
    FAILING TO GIVE CREDIT FOR PARTICULAR PARTS OF A SPEECH THAT ARE BORROWED FROM OTHER PEOPLE
  23. PARAPHRASE
    TO RESTATE OR SUMMARIZE AN AUTHOR'S IDEAS IN ONE'S OWN WORDS
  24. HEARING
    VIBRATION OF SOUND WAVES ON THE EARDRUMS AND THE FIRING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPULSES IN THE BRAIN
  25. LISTENING
    PAYING CLOSE ATTENTION TO, AND MAKING SENSE OF, WHAT WE HEAR
  26. APPRECIATIVE LISTENING
    LISTENING FOR PLEASURE OR ENJOYMENT
  27. EMPATHIC LISTENING
    LISTENING TO PROVIDE EMOTIONAL SUPPORT FOR A SPEAKER
  28. COMPREHENSIVE LISTENING
    LISTENING TO UNDERSTAND THE MESSAGE OF A SPEAKER
  29. CRITICAL LISTENING
    LISTENING TO EVALUATE A MESSAGE FOR PURPOSES OF ACCEPTING OR REJECTING IT
  30. SPARE "BRAIN TIME"
    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RATE AT WHICH MOST PEOPLE TALK (120-150 WORDS A MINUTE) AND THE RATE AT WHICH THE BRAIN CAN PROCESS LANGUAGE (400-800 WORDS A MINUTE)
  31. ACTIVE LISTENING
    GIVING UNDIVIDED ATTENTION TO A SPEAKER IN A GENUINE EFFORT TO UNDERSTAND THE SPEAKER'S POINT OF VIEW
  32. KEY-WORD OUTLINE
    OUTLINE THAT BRIEFLY NOTES A SPEAKER'S MAIN POINTS AND SUPPORTING EVIDENCE IN ROUGH OUTLINE FORM
  33. ICE BREAKER SPEECH
    SPEECH EARLY IN THE TERM DESIGNED TO GET STUDENTS SPEAKING IN FRONT OF THE CLASS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
  34. INTRODUCTION
    OPENING SECTION OF A SPEECH
  35. BODY
    THE MAIN SECTION OF A SPEECH
  36. CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
    METHOD OF SPEECH ORGANIZATION IN WHICH THE MAIN POINTS FOLLOW A TIME PATTERN
  37. TOPICAL ORDER
    METHOD OF SPEECH IN WHICH THE MAIN POINTS DIVIDE THE TOPIC INTO LOGICAL AND CONSISTENT SUBTOPICS
  38. MAIN POINTS
    MAJOR POINTS DEVELOPED IN THE BODY OF A SPEECH
  39. TRANSITION
    WORD OR PHRASE THAT INDICATES WHEN A SPEAKER HAS FINISHED ONE THOUGHT AND IS MOVING ONTO ANOTHER
  40. CONCLUSION
    THE FINAL SECTION OF A SPEECH
  41. EXTEMPORANEOUS SPEECH
    CAREFULLY PREPARED AND REHEARSED SPEECH THAT IS PRESENTED FROM A BRIEF SET OF NOTES
  42. GESTURES
    MOTIONS OF A SPEAKER'S HANDS OR ARMS DURING A SPEECH
  43. EYE CONTACT
    DIRECT VISUAL CONTACT WITH THE EYES OF ANOTHER PERSON
  44. TOPIC
    THE SUBJECT OF A SPEECH
  45. BRAINSTORMING
    METHOD OF GENERATING IDEAS FOR SPEECH TOPICS BY FREE ASSOCIATION OF WORDS AND IDEAS
  46. GENERAL PURPOSE
    THE BROAD GOAL OF A SPEECH
  47. SPECIFIC PURPOSE
    A SINGLE INFINITIVE PHRASE THAT STATES PRECISELY WHAT A SPEAKER HOPES TO ACCOMPLISH IN HIS OR HER SPEECH
  48. CENTRAL IDEA
    A ONE SENTENCE STATEMENT THAT SUMS UP OR ENCAPSULATES THE MAJOR IDEAS OF A SPEECH
  49. RESIDUAL MESSAGE
    WHAT A SPEAKER WANTS THE AUDIENCE TO REMEMBER AFTER IT HAS FORGOTTEN EVERYTHING ELSE IN A SPEECH
  50. AUDIENCE-CENTEREDNESS
    KEEPING THE AUDIENCE FOREMOST IN MIND AT EVER STEP OF SPEECH PREPARATION AND PRESENTAION
  51. IDENTIFICATION
    PROCESS IN WHICH SPEAKERS SEEK TO CREATE A BOND WITH THE AUDIENCE BY EMPHASIZING COMMON VALUES, GOALS, AND EXPERIENCES
  52. EGOCENTRISM
    TENDENCY OF PEOPLE TO BE CONCERNED ABOVE ALL WITH THEIR OWN VALUES, BELIEFS, AND WELL-BEING
  53. DEMOGRAPHIC AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
    AUDIENCE ANALYSIS THAT FOCUSES ON DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS SUCH AS AGE, GENDER, RELIGION, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, GROUP MEMBERSHIP, AND RACIAL, ETHNIC, OR CULTURAL BACKGROUND
  54. STEREOTYPING
    CREATING AND OVERSIMPLIFIED IMAGE OF A PARTICULAR GROUP OF PEOPLE, USUALLY BY ASSUMING THAT ALL MEMBERS OF THE GROUP ARE ALIKE
  55. SITUATIONAL AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
    AUDIENCE ANALYSIS THAT FOCUSES ON SITUATIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS THE SIZE OF THE AUDIENCE, THE PHYSICAL SETTING FOR THE SPEECH, AND THE DISPOSITION OF THE AUDIENCE TOWARD THE TOPIC, THE SPEAKER, AND THE OCCASION
  56. ATTITUDE
    FRAME OF MIND IN FAVOR OF OR OPPOSED TO A PERSON, POLICY, BELIEF, INSTITUTION, ETC
  57. FIXED-ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS
    QUESTIONS THAT OFFER A FIXED CHOICE BETWEEN TWO OR MORE ALTERNATIVES
  58. SCALE QUESTIONS
    QUESTIONS THAT REQUIRE RESPONSES AT FIXED INTERVALS ALONG A SCALE OF ANSWERS
  59. OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS
    QUESTIONS THAT ALLOW RESPONDENTS TO ANSWER HOWEVER THEY WANT
  60. CATALOGUE
    A LISTING OF ALL BOOKS, PERIODICALS, AND OTHER RESOURCES OWNED BY A LIBRARY
  61. CALL NUMBER
    A NUMBER USED IN LIBRARIES TO CLASSIFY BOOKS AND PERIODICALS AND TO INDICATE WHERE THEY CAN BE FOUND ON THE SHELVES
  62. REFERENCE WORK
    A WORK THAT SYNTHESIZES A LARGE AMOUNT OF RELATED INFORMATION FOR EASY ACCESS BY RESEARCHERS
  63. NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL DATABASE
    A RESEARCH AID THAT CATALOGUES ARTICLES FROM A LARGE NUMBER OF MAGAZINES, JOURNALS, AND NEWSPAPERS
  64. ABSTRACT
    A SUMMARY OF A MAGAZINE OF JOURNAL ARTICLE, WRITTEN BY SOMEONE OTHER THAN THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR
  65. ACADEMIC DATABASE
    A DATABASE THAT CATALOGUES ARTICLES FROM SCHOLARLY JOURNALS
  66. VIRTUAL LIBRARY
    A SEARCH ENGINE THAT COMBINES INTERNET TECHNOLOGY WITH TRADITIONAL LIBRARY METHODS OF CATALOGUING AND ASSESSING DATA
  67. SPONSORING ORGANIZATION
    AN ORGANIZATION THAT, IN THE ABSENCE OF A CLEARLY IDENTIFIED AUTHOR, IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONTENT OF A DOCUMENT ON THE INTERNET
  68. RESEARCH INTERVIEW
    AN INTERVIEW CONDUCTED TO GATHER INFORMATION FOR A SPEECH
  69. PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY
    A LIST COMPILED IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS OF WORKS THAT LOOK AS IF THEY MIGHT CONTAIN HELPFUL INFORMATION ABOUT A SPEECH TOPIC
  70. SUPPORTING MATERIALS
    THE MATERIALS USED TO SUPPORT A SPEAKER'S IDEAS. THE THREE MAJOR KIND OF SUPPORTING MATERIALS ARE EXAMPLES, STATISTICS, AND TESTIMONY
  71. EXAMPLE
    A SPECIFIC CASE USED TO ILLUSTRATE OR REPRESENT A GROUP OF PEOPLE, IDEAS, CONDITIONS, EXPERIENCES, OR THE LIKE
  72. BRIEF EXAMPLE
    A SPECIFIC CASE REFERRED TO IN PASSING TO ILLUSTRATE A POINT
  73. EXTENDED EXAMPLE
    A STORY, NARRATIVE, OR ANECDOTE DEVELOPED AT SOME LENGTH TO ILLUSTRATE A POINT
  74. HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE
    AN EXAMPLE THAT DESCRIBES AN IMAGINARY OR FICTITIOUS SITUATION
  75. STATISTICS
    NUMERICAL DATA
  76. MEAN
    THE AVERAGE VALUE OF A GROUP OF NUMBERS
  77. MEDIAN
    THE MIDDLE NUMBER IN A GROUP OF NUMBERS ARRANGED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
  78. MODE
    THE NUMBER THAT OCCURS MOST FREQUENTLY IN A GROUP OF NUMBERS
  79. TESTIMONY
    QUOTATIONS OR PARAPHRASES USED TO SUPPORT A POINT
  80. EXPERT TESTIMONY
    TESTIMONY FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE RECOGNIZED EXPERTS IN THEIR FIELDS
  81. PEER TESTIMONY
    TESTIMONY FROM ORDINARY PEOPLE WITH FIRSTHAND EXPERIENCE OR INSIGHT ON A TOPIC
  82. DIRECT QUOTATION
    TESTIMONY THAT IS PRESENTED WORD FOR WORD
  83. PARAPHRASE
    TO RESTATE OR SUMMARIZE A SOURCE'S IDEAS IN ONE'S OWN WORDS
  84. QUOTING OUT OF CONTEXT
    QUOTING A STATEMENT IN SUCH A WAY AS TO DISTORT ITS MEANING BY REMOVING THE STATEMENT FROM THE WORDS AND PHRASES SURROUNDING IT
  85. STRATEGIC ORGANIZATION
    PUTTING A SPEECH TOGETHER IN A PARTICULAR WAY TO ACHIEVE A PARTICULAR RESULT WITH A PARTICULAR AUDIENCE
  86. MAIN POINTS
    THE MAJOR POINTS DEVELOPED IN THE BODY OF A SPEECH. MOST SPEECHES CONTAIN FROM TWO TO FIVE MAIN POINTS
  87. CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
    A METHOD OF SPEECH ORGANIZATION WHICH THE MAIN POINTS FOLLOW A TIME PATTERN
  88. SPATIAL ORDER
    A METHOD OF SPEECH ORGANIZATION IN WHICH THE MAIN POINTS FOLLOW A DIRECTIONAL PATTERN
  89. CASUAL ORDER
    A METHOD OF SPEECH ORGANIZATION IN WHICH THE MAIN POINTS SHOW A CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP
  90. PROBLEM-SOLUTION ORDER
    A METHOD OF SPEECH ORGANIZATION IN WHICH THE FIRST MAIN POINT DEALS WITH TH EXISTENCE OF A PROBLEM AND THE SECOND MAIN POINT PRESENTS A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM
  91. TOPICAL ORDER
    A METHOD OF SPEECH ORGANIZATION IN WHICH THE MAIN POINTS DIVIDE THE TOPIC INTO LOGICAL AND CONSISTENT SUBTOPICS
  92. SUPPORTING MATERIALS
    MATERIALS USED TO SUPPORT A SPEAKER'S IDEAS. THE THREE MAJOR KINDS OF SUPPORTING MATERIALS ARE EXAMPLE, STATISTICS, AND TESTIMONY
  93. CONNECTIVE
    A WORD OR PHRASE THAT CONNECTS THE IDEAS OF A SPEECH AND INDICATES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM
  94. TRANSITION
    WORD OR PHRASE THAT INDICATES WHEN A SPEAKER HAS FINISHED ONE THOUGHT AND IS MOVING ON TO ANOTHER
  95. INTERNAL PREVIEW
    A STATMENT IN THE BODY OF THE SPEECH THAT LETS THE AUDIENCE KNOW WHAT THE SPEAKER IS GOING TO DISCUSS NEXT
  96. INTERNAL SUMMARY
    A STATEMENT IN THE BODY OF THE SPEECH THAT SUMMARIZES THE SPEAKER'S PRECEDING POINTS OR POINTS
  97. SIGNPOST
    A VERY BRIEF STATEMENT THAT INDICATES WHERE A SPEAKER IS IN THE SPEECH OR THAT FOCUSES ATTENTION ON KEY IDEAS
  98. INFORMATIVE SPEECH
    A SPEECH DESIGNED TO CONVEY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
  99. OBJECT
    ANYTHING THAT IS VISIBLE, TANGINBLE, AND STABLE IN FORM
  100. PROCESS
    A SYSTEMATIVE SERIES OF ACTIONS THAT LEADS TO A SPECIFIC RESULT OR PRODUCT
  101. EVENT
    ANYTHING THAT HAPPENS OR IS REGARDED AS HAPPENING
  102. CONCEPT
    A BELIEF, THEORY, IDEA, NOTION, PRINCIPLE, OR THE LIKE
  103. DESCRIPTION
    STATEMENT THAT DEPICTS A PERSON, EVENT, IDEA, OR THE LIKE WITH CLARITY AND VIVIDNESS
  104. COMPARISON
    STATEMENT OF THE SIMILARITIES AMONG TWO OR MORE PEOPLE, EVENTS, IDEAS, ETC
  105. CONTRAST
    STATEMENT OF THE DIFFERENCES AMONG TWO OR MORE PEOPLE, EVENTS, IDEAS, ETC
  106. PERSONALIZE
    TO PRESENT ONE'S IDEAS IN HUMAN TERMS THAT RELATE IN SOME FASHION TO THE EXPERIENCE OF THE AUDIENCE
  107. SPEECH OF INTRODUCTION
    A SPEECH THAT INTRODUCES THE MAIN SPEAKER TO THE AUDIENCE
  108. SPEECH OF PRESENTATION
    A SPEECH THAT PRESENTS SOMEONE A GIFT, AN AWARD, OR SOME OTHER FORM OF PUBLIC RECOGNITION
  109. ACCEPTANCE SPEECH
    A SPEECH THAT GIVES THANKS FOR A GIFT, AN AWARD, OR SOME OTHER FORM OF PUBLIC RECOGNITION
  110. COMMEMORATIVE SPEECH
    A SPEECH THAT PAYS TRIBUTE TO A PERSON, A GROUP OF PEOPLE, AN INSTITUTION, OR AN IDEA

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