Card Set Information

2013-03-03 14:20:49

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  1. 1:___ men will develop prostate cancer
  2. Prostate cancer is most common after age ___. 
  3. ______ men have higher incidences and a worse prognosis of prostate cancer
    African American
  4. IS, Swedan and European men have a ___ risk of prostate cancer
  5. Japan, Tiawan & Jewish men have a ____ risk of prostate cancer
  6. Prostate cancer is a ___ growing malignancy
    • The younger at diagnosis, the worse the prognosis.
    • Younger men have hormones that fuels the cancer allows it to rage out of control.
  8. What does BPH stand for?
    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  9. Prostate cancer is oftern found concurrently with _____. Cause or effect of this has yet to be determined.
  10. True or Flase
    Prognostic factor of Prostate Cancer:
    Larger & less differentiated tumors are the most aggressive and have a greater incidence of lymphatic & metastatic disease.
  11. Is age a prognostic factor for prostate cancer?
  12. African American men present with a ___ stage but if there is no difference when  presented with _____ pretreatment prognostic factors.
    • higher
    • no
    • same
  13. The higher the nadir ______ treatment, the higher the risk of _____.
    ** less than 1 is desirable
    however, an 80 year old be ok with a 3 or 4
    • after
    • failure
  14. What does nadir mean?
    at its lowest point
  15. Is prostate cancer a tumor or a diffused disease?
    diffused disease
  16. How many biopsy's are obtain with most prostate cases?
    7-10 cores
  17. Cancer is ____  and develops in the peripheral of the prostate.
    Benign disease is central.
  18. ____ invasion is present in almost all prostate cancer cases.
    • perineural
    • **meaning nerves are affected
  19. What nodes does prostate cancer involve first?
    then follows the _____, hypogastric, _____, and paraaortics.
    • Periprostatic
    • external iliacs
    • internal iliacs
  20. Where are the periprostatic nodes located?
    outside the prostate capsule
  21. Where are the external iliac nodes located?
    brim of pelvis
  22. Where are the para-aortic nodes located?
    side of the vertebral body
  23. Once prostate cancer is in the blood stream where does it usually go?
    • Bone (hip & femor)
    • Liver
    • Brain
  24. What are some of the clinical presentation signs of Prostate Cancer?
    • Dysuria (most common)
    • Decreased urinary stream
    • Frequency
    • Difficulty starting
    • Hematuria
  25. What is a normal PSA?
    4ng/ml or less
  26. What is the most common pathology for Prostate Cancer?
  27. THe higher the Gleason score the more ____ the tumor
  28. Gleason score is only associated with ____ cancer
  29. What is a normal treatment for patients over the age of 75 with prostate cancer?
  30. THe following is the criteria for what prostate cancer treatment:
    T1 ot T2
    Life expectancy of atleast 10 years
    Has not invaded seminal vesicles
  31. What are side effects of a Prostatectomy?
    • nerve damage
    • unable to get an erection
  32. This willl stop in tissue, charge particle
  33. This willl go straight through tissue, no charge
  34. Prostate Cancer doses for
    Seminal vesicle _______
    Prostate ________
    • Nodal: 45-50
    • Seminal vesicle:  54-56
    • Prostate: 72-80
  35. A full bladder helps ______ and displaces smal bowel on lateral fields.
    decrease bladder dose
  36. What are the side effects of surgery?  (Prostate Cancer)
    Incontience & sexual impotence
  37. Penis cancer is kind of like ____ cancer
  38. Penis & mae urethra incidence is ___ in Asia, Africa,  and South America
  39. _____ cancer is related to neonatal circumcision
  40. ____ cancer is linked to chronic irritation, and infetions, HPV, veneral disease, and strictures
  41. Penis & Male urethra cancer age of presentation is ______.
  42. Clinical Presentation of Penile Cancer is
    • Phimosis
    • Secondary infections & foul smells
    • Inguinal Lymph nodes
    • Mass
    • Ulceration, bleeding, discharge
  43. What are some side effects of RT? (Prostate Cancer)
    • diarrhea
    • abdominal cramping
    • rectal discomfort
    • rectal bleeding
    • proctitis
    • frequency or urgency in urination
    • sexual impotence
    • hemmoroids
  44. What are some clinical presentations of urethral cancer?
    • Obstructon
    • tenderness
    • dysuria
    • urethral discharge
    • hematuria
  45. True/Flase
    In urethral cancer distal lesions have enlarged inguinal lymph nodes

    If it is closer to the prostate 1st will be iliac
    • Detection & Diagnosis of urethral & Penile Ca.
    • **Penile lesions can be seen on exam
    • ** Urethral lesions are evaluated by urethroscopy & cystoscopy
    • **Ct can help evaluate lymph nodes
  47. What is the Pathology of Penile lesions?
    Well Differentiated squamous cell
  48. What is the pathology of urethral lesions?
    Well to moderately differentiated squamous cell
  49. What is the pathology of Prostatic Urethral lesions?
    Transitional cell
  50. What is the pathology of Bulbomembranous urethral lesions?
  51. What is the most common site nodal spread of penile lesions
    Inguinal nodes
  52. Where is the blood spread of Penile Lesions?
    Lung, Liver, Bone, Brain
  53. Urethral Lesions:
    Distal Lesions drain to the _____ nodes and proximal lesions drain to the ___ ____, obturator and ____ ____.
    • Inguinal
    • external iliacs
    • internal iliacs
  54. Surgury, 5-FU cream, Radiation Therapy,
    65-70 Gy include inguinal nodes, Brachytherapy molds 60-65 Gy in 5-7 days is treatment for what?
    Penile Lesions
  55. Transurethral resection & distal lesions are treated like penile lesions is treatment techniques for what?
    urethral lesions
  56. What are some of the side effects of Penile & Urethral treatments?
    • Erythema
    • Dry & Moist desquuamation
    • swelling of the shaft
    • Telangiectasis
    • fibrosis
    • strictures
    • ulcerations
    • necrosis
    • lymphedema
  57. Testicular cancers are ____ but the most common malignancy in men between the ages of ___ & ___.
    • rare
    • 20-34
  58. Testicular cancer incidence is higher in males with _____ _____
    undecended testes
  59. Define BPH
    benign prostate hyperplasia

    Benign enlargement of the prostate
  60. Define TURP
    Transurethral Resection of the Prostate

    Trims away excess prostate tissue that blocks urine flow
  61. Define PSA
    Prostatic  Specific Antigen

    Enzyme secreted by the prostate gland, increased levels are found in men with cancer of the prostate
  62. list the interstital isoptopes used for prostate cancer
    • Pd103
    • I125