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1:___ men will develop prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is most common after age ___.
______ men have higher incidences and a worse prognosis of prostate cancer
IS, Swedan and European men have a ___ risk of prostate cancer
Japan, Tiawan & Jewish men have a ____ risk of prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is a ___ growing malignancy
- The younger at diagnosis, the worse the prognosis.
- Younger men have hormones that fuels the cancer allows it to rage out of control.
What does BPH stand for?
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Prostate cancer is oftern found concurrently with _____. Cause or effect of this has yet to be determined.
True or Flase
Prognostic factor of Prostate Cancer:
Larger & less differentiated tumors are the most aggressive and have a greater incidence of lymphatic & metastatic disease.
Is age a prognostic factor for prostate cancer?
African American men present with a ___ stage but if there is no difference when presented with _____ pretreatment prognostic factors.
The higher the nadir ______ treatment, the higher the risk of _____.
** less than 1 is desirable
however, an 80 year old be ok with a 3 or 4
What does nadir mean?
at its lowest point
Is prostate cancer a tumor or a diffused disease?
How many biopsy's are obtain with most prostate cases?
Cancer is ____ and develops in the peripheral of the prostate.
Benign disease is central.
____ invasion is present in almost all prostate cancer cases.
- **meaning nerves are affected
What nodes does prostate cancer involve first?
then follows the _____, hypogastric, _____, and paraaortics.
- external iliacs
- internal iliacs
Where are the periprostatic nodes located?
outside the prostate capsule
Where are the external iliac nodes located?
brim of pelvis
Where are the para-aortic nodes located?
side of the vertebral body
Once prostate cancer is in the blood stream where does it usually go?
- Bone (hip & femor)
What are some of the clinical presentation signs of Prostate Cancer?
- Dysuria (most common)
- Decreased urinary stream
- Difficulty starting
What is a normal PSA?
4ng/ml or less
What is the most common pathology for Prostate Cancer?
THe higher the Gleason score the more ____ the tumor
Gleason score is only associated with ____ cancer
What is a normal treatment for patients over the age of 75 with prostate cancer?
THe following is the criteria for what prostate cancer treatment:
T1 ot T2
Life expectancy of atleast 10 years
Has not invaded seminal vesicles
What are side effects of a Prostatectomy?
- nerve damage
- unable to get an erection
This willl stop in tissue, charge particle
This willl go straight through tissue, no charge
Prostate Cancer doses for
Seminal vesicle _______
- Nodal: 45-50
- Seminal vesicle: 54-56
- Prostate: 72-80
A full bladder helps ______ and displaces smal bowel on lateral fields.
decrease bladder dose
What are the side effects of surgery? (Prostate Cancer)
Incontience & sexual impotence
Penis cancer is kind of like ____ cancer
Penis & mae urethra incidence is ___ in Asia, Africa, and South America
_____ cancer is related to neonatal circumcision
____ cancer is linked to chronic irritation, and infetions, HPV, veneral disease, and strictures
Penis & Male urethra cancer age of presentation is ______.
Clinical Presentation of Penile Cancer is
- Secondary infections & foul smells
- Inguinal Lymph nodes
- Ulceration, bleeding, discharge
What are some side effects of RT? (Prostate Cancer)
- abdominal cramping
- rectal discomfort
- rectal bleeding
- frequency or urgency in urination
- sexual impotence
What are some clinical presentations of urethral cancer?
- urethral discharge
In urethral cancer distal lesions have enlarged inguinal lymph nodes
If it is closer to the prostate 1st will be iliac
- Detection & Diagnosis of urethral & Penile Ca.
- **Penile lesions can be seen on exam
- ** Urethral lesions are evaluated by urethroscopy & cystoscopy
- **Ct can help evaluate lymph nodes
What is the Pathology of Penile lesions?
Well Differentiated squamous cell
What is the pathology of urethral lesions?
Well to moderately differentiated squamous cell
What is the pathology of Prostatic Urethral lesions?
What is the pathology of Bulbomembranous urethral lesions?
What is the most common site nodal spread of penile lesions
Where is the blood spread of Penile Lesions?
Lung, Liver, Bone, Brain
Distal Lesions drain to the _____ nodes and proximal lesions drain to the ___ ____, obturator and ____ ____.
- external iliacs
- internal iliacs
Surgury, 5-FU cream, Radiation Therapy,
65-70 Gy include inguinal nodes, Brachytherapy molds 60-65 Gy in 5-7 days is treatment for what?
Transurethral resection & distal lesions are treated like penile lesions is treatment techniques for what?
What are some of the side effects of Penile & Urethral treatments?
- Dry & Moist desquuamation
- swelling of the shaft
Testicular cancers are ____ but the most common malignancy in men between the ages of ___ & ___.
Testicular cancer incidence is higher in males with _____ _____
benign prostate hyperplasia
Benign enlargement of the prostate
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate
Trims away excess prostate tissue that blocks urine flow
Prostatic Specific Antigen
Enzyme secreted by the prostate gland, increased levels are found in men with cancer of the prostate
list the interstital isoptopes used for prostate cancer