Pathology II Exam 1

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Pathology II Exam 1
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Pathology II Exam 1
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  1. a temporary increase in the number of circulating WBCs
    Leukocytosis

    protective mechanism in inflammmation
  2. a temporary decrease in the number of circulating WBCs
    Leukopenia

    seen in typhoid fever, measles, mumps, flu, T.B.
  3. A marked decrease in CO2 content
    Acapnia

    seen in instances of asthma, pulmonary embolism, and anxiety
  4. the condition in which there is an excessive proportion of acid in the blood
    Acidosis

    often seen in diabetes, renal disease and severe dehydration
  5. the condition in which there is an excessive proportion of alkali in the blood
    Alkalosis

    can be seen in many metabolic disorders
  6. A deficiency of circulating erythrocytes and/or hemoglobin
    Anemia

    a sign of disease
  7. Due to a decrease in production of erythrocytes
    Primary Anemia

    occurs in two ways
  8. most common deficiency
    iron

    essential for R.B.C development

    nutritional deficiency
  9. occurs when Vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed from food
    pernicious anemia

    nutritional deficiency
  10. commonly occurs in the white race after 40 years of age
    pernicious anemia

    rarely before 35
  11. ___________ associated with the absence of an intrinsic factor found in gastric HCl
    pernicious anemia
  12. anemia due to marrow suppression
    Aplastic anemia
  13. the result of drug and chemical damage, radiation, infection, and metabolic disorders
    aplastic anemia
  14. anemia due to increased destruction or loss of erythrocytes
    secondary anemia

    due to disease or trauma
  15. the rupturing of RBCs
    hemolytic anemia

    seen in malaria, sickle cell anemia, erythroblastosis fetalis
  16. acute from trauma
    hemorrhage anemia

    secondary anemia
  17. chronic from lesions of the GI tract
    hemorrhage anemia

    secondary anemia
  18. the disruption of any substance that assists in or stimulates the production of blood cells
    Hematopoietic (Hemopoietic) Disorder
  19. A malignancy of the hemopoietic (blood-forming organs) tissues
    leukemia

    bone marrow, lymph nodes, and WBCs
  20. commonly called "cancer of the blood"
    leukemia

    Hematopoietic (Hemopoietic) Disorders
  21. an uncontrolled overproduction of WBCs that are malformed
    leukemia

    Hematopoietic (Hemopoietic) Disorders
  22. common S/S;

    swollen spleen and lymph nodes, fever, weight loss, fatigue, joint pain, and a tendency to hemorrhage
    leukemia

    Hematopoietic (Hemopoietic) Disorders
  23. An uncontrolled production of RBCs
    Polycythemia Vera (Erythrocytosis)

    Hematopoietic (Hemopoietic) Disorders

    secondary to many disorders
  24. referred to as a chronic, life-shortening myelo-proliferative disorder involving all bone marrow elements
    Polycythemia Vera (Erythrocytosis)

    Hematopoietic (Hemopoietic) Disorders

    secondary to many disorders
  25. leads to an increase in RBC mass and hemoglobin concentration that increases blood viscosity, causes high blood pressure, and leads to extra work on the heart
    Polycythemia Vera (Erythrocytosis)

    Hematopoietic (Hemopoietic) Disorders

    secondary to many disorders
  26. a hereditary abnormality resulting in a defect in the clotting mechanism
    hemophilia

    bleeding disorder
  27. characterized by a tendency toward excessive and sometimes spontaneous bleeding
    hemophilia

    bleeding disorder
  28. affects males but transmitted by females
    hemophilia

    bleeding disorder
  29. an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets
    thrombocytopenia

    bleeding disorder
  30. _________ leads to a tendency toward widespread, spontaneous bleeding into the skin or mucus membranes resulting in a deep purplish pigmentation known as ___________
    1. thrombocytopenia

    (a bleeding disorder)

    2. purpura
  31. predisposing conditions to diseases of the heart and blood vessels
    • 1. heredity
    • 2. obesity
    • 3. diabetes
    • 4. elevated cholesterol levels
    • 5. social factors
    •    a. smoking
    •    b. substance abuse
    •    c. stress
    •    d. diet
  32. the most common cause of disability and death in U.S.
    heart disease
  33. enlargement of the heart due to stretching of the heart valves
    dilatation

    heart disease
  34. usually occurs as a result of the over-filling of a heart chamber
    dilatation

    heart disease
  35. enlargement of the heart due to an increase in size of the muscle fibers
    hypertrophy

    heart disease
  36. the result of an increased amount of work put upon the heart
    hypertrophy

    heart disease
  37. hypertrophy

    heart disease

    may be caused by;
    • 1. obstructions of the peripheral vessels
    • 2. disease conditions involving the heart valves
    • 3. inflammatory and degenerative changes in the heart muscle
  38. dilatation and hypertrophy cause ______ an important sign of heart disease
    enlargement of the heart
  39. inflammation of the inner layer of the heart (endocardium)
    endocarditis
  40. includes inflammation of the heart valves
    endocarditis
  41. without qualification endocarditis always means
    valvular endocarditis
  42. usually cause by bacteria that is deposited on a valve
    valvular endocarditis
  43. collection of bacteria that is deposited on a valve creates thrombi known as ________
    vegetations
  44. imperfect valve closure that permits leakage or refrigeration of blood
    valvular insufficiency or incompetence
  45. the narrowing or constriction of a valve
    valvular stenosis
  46. a valve or one of the cusps of the valvle turns inside out
    prolapse
  47. inflammation of the outer sac of the heart
    pericarditis
  48. outer sac of the heart
    pericardium
  49. can be caused by;

    T.B., pyogenic organisms, neoplasms, trauma, myocardial infarction
    pericarditis
  50. inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart
    myocarditis
  51. muscle layer of the heart
    myocardium
  52. occurs commonly after rheumatic fever and diphtheria or may be idiopathic
    myocarditis
  53. a febrile inflammatory disease that is a sequelae of rheumatic fever
    rheumatic heart disease
  54. what bacterium causes rheumatic heart disease
    group A beta hemolytic streptococci
  55. small nodules formed within the connective tissue of the heart during rheumatic heart disease
    • Aschoff's nodules
    • Aschoff's bodies
  56. ______ lead to the formation of scar tissue in the tissues of the heart
    Aschoff's nodules/Aschoff's bodies
  57. commonly seen in the mitral valve during rheumatic heart disease
    Aschoff's nodules Aschoff's bodies
  58. Aschoff's nodules/Aschoff's bodiesseen in the mitral valve cause
    stenosis
  59. leads to chronic heart disease/rheumatic heart disease
    • 1. Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci
    • 2. Aschoff's nodules/Aschoff's bodies
    • 3. mitral valve stenosis
  60. pathologic changes in the walls of the coronary arteries and the consequences or results
    Coronary artery disease
  61. Coronary artery disease is caused by:
    • 1. atherosclerosis
    • 2. thrombosis or embolism
    • 3. spasms
  62. usually caused by syphilitic involvement of the mouths of the coronaries
    spasms
  63. leads to uncontrolled contractions of the heart muscle
    spasms
  64. uncontrolled contractions of the heart muscle occlude the lumens of the coronary arteries
    spasms
  65. consequences of Coronary artery disease
    • 1. coronary occlusion
    • 2. myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  66. the condition resulting from the inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the body's needs
    cardiac failure
  67. Acute cardiac failure
    myocardial infarction
  68. chronic cardiac failure
    congestive heart failure
  69. a result of high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, prior myocardial infarctions, etc.
    congestive heart failure
  70. condition caused by constant pumping against resistance
    hypertensive heart disease
  71. slowly "wears out" the heart
    hypertensive heart disease
  72. caused by hypertension
    hypertensive heart disease
  73. hypertension also known as
    high blood pressure
  74. disease of the myocardium due to a primary disease of the heart muscle
    cardiomyopathy
  75. accompanies congestive heart failure, infectious diseases, hypertrophy of the heart chambers, and chronic alcoholism
    cardiomyopathy
  76. a general term to encompass inflammation of any of the layers or valves of the heart
    carditis
  77. septal defects
    congenital heart disease
  78. patent ductus arteriosus
    congenital heart disease
  79. a defect in the closing of the opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
    patent ductus arteriosus
  80. causes mixing of pulmonary and systemic blood
    patent ductus arteriosus
  81. this defect predisposes to infection and thrombosis
    patent ductus arteriosus
  82. react to injury and repair, infection, inflammation and tumors
    diseases of the blood vessels
  83. inflammation of an artery
    arteritis
  84. the thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries
    arteriosclerosis
  85. resultes in altered function of the tissues and organs because of decreased blood flow
    arteriosclerosis
  86. hardening of the mitral valve of the heart
    mitral sclerosis
  87. a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the deposition of fatty deposits called plaques
    atherosclerosis
  88. specifically occurs in the large elastic arteries such as the aorta, coronary arteries, and cerebral arteries
    atherosclerosis
  89. a localized weakening and dilation of an artery
    aneurysm
  90. 3 types of aneurysms
    • 1. fusiform
    • 2. sacculated
    • 3. dissectiing
  91. an equal dilation around the circumference of the vessel creating a tubular swelling
    fusiform aneurysm
  92. yielding of a weak area on one side of the vessel not involving the entire circumference
    sacculated aneurysm
  93. appears as a bulging, sac-like dilation
    sacculated aneurysm
  94. a separation of the tissues in the wall of an artery
    dissecting aneurysm
  95. allows blood to enter and further seperate the tissues
    dissecting aneurysm
  96. any one of the type of aneurysms discussed in class may increase in size and rupture causing a
    severe hemorrhage
  97. inflammation of the veins
    phlebitis
  98. dilated, tortuous, superficial veins
    varicose veins
  99. can occur in almost any part of the body, but are most commonly observed in the lower extremity, the esophagus, and the perianal veins
    varicose veins
  100. some causes of varicose veins may be
    • 1. pregnancy
    • 2. obesity
    • 3. occupations requiring prolonged standing or sitting
  101. other names for varicose veins
    • varix
    • varices
  102. any infectious disease of the nervous system is
    a neurotropic disease
  103. an injury of a soft structure, such as the brain, resulting from a blow or violent shaking with no physical damage apparent
    concussion

    trauma to the brain
  104. an immediate and temporary disturbance of brain function
    concussion

    trauma to the brain
  105. it may result in only a temporary grogginess or there may be a wide spread loss of cerebral control with a sudden drawing of the knees and severe vomiting
    concussion

    trauma to the brain
  106. a bruise to the brain causing swelling and pain
    contusion

    trauma to the brain
  107. the skin is not broken at the site if the injury
    contusion

    trauma to the brain
  108. may lead to hydrocephalus
    contusion

    trauma to the brain
  109. tearing of brain tissue
    laceration

    trauma to the brain
  110. may occur with or without fracture of the skull
    laceration

    trauma to the brain
  111. hemorrhage in the cranium
    intracranial hemorrhage

    trauma to the brain
  112. categorized according to the location in relation to the meninges
    intracranial hemorrhage

    trauma to the brain
  113. layers of the cranium from the outside to the inside
    • 1. bone
    • 2. dura mater
    • 3. arachnoid mater
    • 4. pia mater
    • 5. brain
  114. hemorrhage between the bone and dura mater
    extradural

    epidural
  115. hemorrhage between the dura mater and arachnoid mater
    subdural
  116. the most common type of brain hemorrhage
    subdural
  117. this type of hemorrhage will cause sudden death in severe cases
    subdural
  118. inflammation of the membranes around the spinal cord and brain
    meningitis
  119. caused by numerous bacteria and viruses
    meningitis
  120. the form caused by the menigococcus (Neisseria meningitidis) is called
    epidemic meningitis
  121. the most serious form of meningitis
    epidemic meningitis
  122. transmitted via the respiratory tract by droplet spray or direct contact with discharges
    meningitis
  123. once contracted it then reaches the meninges via the blood or lymph stream
    meningitis
  124. inflammation of the brain
    encephalitis
  125. can be bacterial or viral
    encephalitis
  126. the most common form is viral
    encephalitis
  127. transmitted to humans via an infected mosquito
    viral encephalitis
  128. it may also only be a complication of other infectious disease like malaria, influenza, measles
    encephalitis
  129. a diffuse meningoencephalitis seen in the tertiary stage of syphilis
    general paresis
  130. inflammation and degeneration of brain tissue that will lead to death
    general paresis
  131. damage to the brain as a result of circulatory interruption
    Cerebrovascular accident/stroke/apoplexy
  132. usually due to thrombosis, embolism, or hemorrhage
    Cerebrovascular accident/stroke/apoplexy
  133. these are usually secondary to atherosclerotic disease
    Cerebrovascular accident/stroke/apoplexy
  134. if hemorrhage occurs where blood escapes into the tissue of the brain it may be due to hypertension or possibly a congenital aneurysm
    Cerebrovascular accident/stroke/apoplexy
  135. softening of the brain due to the death of tissue from lack of blood supply
    encephalomalacia
  136. a temporary interference with the blood supply to parts of the brain
    Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
  137. TIA is characterized by (3)
    • dizziness
    • fuzzy vision in one eye
    • numbness or loss of sensation on one side of the body
  138. no permanent damage occurs

    may last a few minutes or several hours
    TIA
  139. the increased accumulation of cerebro-spinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain
    Hydrocephalus
  140. "Water on the brain"
    Hydrocephalus
  141. caused by a blockage of the normal outflow of the fluid from the brain
    Hydrocephalus
  142. brain is pushed against skull in adults
    Hydrocephalus
  143. dramatic enlargement of the cranium in infants
    Hydrocephalus
  144. severe cases lead to stillbirths or very short lifespans in infants
    Hydrocephalus
  145. inflammation of the spinal cord
    myelitis
  146. occurs due to infection or injury to the spinal cord
    myelitis
  147. inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
    poliomyelitis
  148. often affects brain tissue also
    poliomyelitis
  149. acquired through a viral infection from respiratory system or contaminated food then reaches the spinal cord through the bloodstream
    poliomyelitis
  150. affects the motor neurons of the central nervous system resulting in serious damage and paralysis of the muscles controlled by these nerves
    poliomyelitis
  151. Anytime the brain and spinal cord are both involved the term ____________ is used
    Encephalomyelitis
  152. inflammation of the nerves
    Neuritis
  153. may be a direct infection or a complication of other infections like tuberculosis, tetanus, or measles
    Neuritis
  154. may be from damage by trauma or toxins
    Neuritis
  155. A chronic disorder of the nervous system with recurring convulsions and losses of consciousness
    Epilepsy
  156. the result of some form of interference with normal electrical activity in the brain
    Epilepsy
  157. most cases are idiopathic
    Epilepsy
  158. some are associated with brain injury, trauma at birth, or tumors
    Epilepsy
  159. characterized by convulsions of which there are two types
    Epilepsy
  160. Epilepsy is characterized by convulsions of which there are two types
    • 1. Grand Mal or Tonic Clonic seizures
    • 2. Petite Mal or Absence seizures
  161. violent convulsions

    making of peculiar sounds, biting the tongue, excess salivation
    Grand Mal or Tonic Clonic seizures
  162. loss of consciousness for short periods of time with dizziness
    Petite Mal or Absence seizures
  163. this form of seizure is more common in children, often appears to be day-dreaming
    Petite Mal or Absence seizures
  164. an acute, viral, infectious disease of warm-blooded animals
    rabies
  165. commonly known as hydrophobia
    rabies
  166. transmitted to humans through the saliva of an infected animal via a bite
    rabies
  167. characterized by involvement of the central nervous system resulting in paralysis and death
    rabies
  168. a chronic degenerative disease of the nervous system characterized by remissions and relapses
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
  169. the myelin sheaths of the nerves are destroyed
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
  170. the areas of damaged or "demyelinated" nerves are replaced with sclerotic plaques impairing motor and sensory nerve impulses
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
  171. scattered diffusely throughout the gray and white matter of the brain stem and spinal cord
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
  172. affects young adults between 20 and 40 years of age
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
  173. a chronic, degenerative nervous disease
    Parkinson's Disease
  174. characterized by a slow spreading tremor, muscle weakness and rigidity with a peculiar gait
    Parkinson's Disease
  175. sometimes referred to as "shaking palsy" or paralysis agitans
    Parkinson's Disease
  176. walking occurs in short, rapid steps

    loss of balance and falling often occurs
    Parkinson's Disease
  177. a chronic, organic mental disorder which leads to presenile dementia
    Alzheimer's Disease
  178. tends to occur after the age of 60
    Alzheimer's Disease
  179. characterized by loss of memory, mood changes, and other mental disturbances
    Alzheimer's Disease
  180. destruction of neurons in the cortex of the brain occurs and plaques are deposited upon the nerve fibers

    believed to be due to neuro-fibril degeneration
    Alzheimer's Disease
  181. a central nervous system disease that causes a slow degeneration
    Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease
  182. leads to dementia
    Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease
  183. caused by a small protein particle called a ______
    prion

    Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease
  184. can be transmitted by a parenteral injury with an object contaminated with the infectious agent
    Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease
  185. infectious agent can be ingested
    Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease
  186. a non-progressive paralysis resulting from some type of brain damage before or shortly after birth
    Cerebral Palsy
  187. may also include some mental retardation
    Cerebral Palsy
  188. A decrease in the production of RBC is
    primary anemia
  189. A decrease in WBC count is
    leukopenia
  190. A deficiency of RBC or hemoglobin is
    Anemia
  191. A lack of oxygen to the brain due to circulatory interruption will cause
    TIA or CVA
  192. A slow degeneration of the central nervous system leading to a gradual mental deterioration called dementia occurs in what disease?(2 answers)
    Alzheimer's disease

    Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease
  193. A temporary interference with the blood supply to the brain that causes no permanent damage but may produce symptoms of dizziness, nurnbness, or fuzzy vision in one eye is
    TIA
  194. A viral disease that affects the motor neurons in the spinal cord causing serious nerve damage and paralysis of the muscles controlled by these nerves is
    poliomyelitis
  195. An increase in the destruction or loss of RBG is
    secondary anemia
  196. An increase in WBC due to the protective mechanism of inflammation is
    leukocytosis
  197. Anemia due to bone marrow suppression is
    aplastic anemia
  198. Any disruption of a substance that assists in or stimulates the production of blood cells is
    primary anemia

    pernicious anemia
  199. Be familiar with the predisposing conditions of heart disease.
    • 1. heredity
    • 2. obesity
    • 3. diabetes
    • 4. elevated cholesterol levels
    • 5. social factors
  200. Be familiar with the signs and symptoms of leukemia
    • swollen spleen and lymph nodes
    • fever
    • weight loss
    • fatigue
    • joint pain
    • tendency to hemorrhage
  201. Cancer of the blood is
    leukemia
  202. Chronic lesions of the gastro-intestinal tract may cause
    hemorrhage

    secondary anemia

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