Medic 14 A&P Chapter 3 V2

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Dthiery237
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204638
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Medic 14 A&P Chapter 3 V2
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2013-03-04 08:22:36
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Medic 14
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Chapter 3 revisited
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  1. Aero-
    air;aerobic
  2. ana-
    Apart;Anaphase
  3. Chondrion
    Granule; Mitochondrion
  4. Chroma
    Color;Chromosome
  5. Cyto-
    Cell;Cytoplasm
  6. Endo-
    inside;endocytosis
  7. Exo-
    outside; Exocytosis
  8. hemo-
    Blood
  9. hyper-
    Above; Hypertonic
  10. hypo-
    Below;Hypotonic
  11. Inter-
    Between;interphase
  12. interstitium
    something standing inbetween; interstitial fluid
  13. iso-
    equal;isotonic
  14. kinesis
    motion;cutpkinesis
  15. meta-
    After;metaphase
  16. micro-
    small;microtubules
  17. osomos
    thrust;osmosis
  18. Phagein
    to eat:phagocyte
  19. Pinein
    to drink:pinocytosis
  20. podon
    foot;pseudopod
  21. pro-
    Before;prophase
  22. Pseudo
    false:pseudopod
  23. ptosis
    a falling away;apoptosis
  24. reticulum
    network; endoplasmic reticulum
  25. soma
    body;lysosome
  26. telos
    end; telophase
  27. tonos
    tension;isotonic
  28. Cell Theory
    • Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals
    • Cells are the smallest functioning units of life
    • Cells are produced through the division of pre-existing cells
    • Each cell maintains homeostasis
  29. Cytology
    The study of the structure and function of cells.
  30. Methods of viewing cell and tissue structure:
    • Light microscopy
    • Electron microscopy
  31. Light microscopy (LM)
    • can magnify cellular structures x1000
    • involves looking at thin sections sliced from a larger piece of tissue
  32. Electron Microscopy (TEMS) (SEMS)
    • (TEMS) transmission electron micrographs are very thin sections they reveal fine details
    • (SEMS) less magnified but produce a three dimensional nature of cell structure
  33. Extracellular fluid
    watery medium that surrounds the cell
  34. Intersitial fluid
    extracellular fluid in most tissues
  35. Cell membrane separates...
    Cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid
  36. Cytoplasm is subdivided into
    • Cytosol-fluid
    • Organelles- intracellular structures
  37. General functions of the cell membrane:
    • Physical isolation
    • Regulation of exchange with the enviroment
    • Sensitivity
    • Structural support
  38. Components of a representative cell
    Composition/Function

    Cell Membrane
    • Lipid bilayer,contains phosopholipids, steroids, and proteins.
    • Provides isolation,protection, sensitivity, and support
    • controls entrance and exit of materials
  39. Components of a representative Cell
    Composition/Function

    Cytosol
    • Fluid component of cytoplasm
    • distributes materials by diffusion
  40. Components of a representative cell
    Composition/Function

    Cytoskeleton
    microtubule/microfilament
    Proteins organised in fine filaments or slender tubes

    provides strength and support; enables movement of cellular structures and materials
  41. Components of a representative cell
    Composition/Function

    Microvilli
    • Membrane extensions that contain microfilaments
    • increase surface area to facilitate absorption or extracellular materials
  42. Components of a representative cell
    Composition/Function

    Cilia
    • Membrane extensions that contain microtubules
    • Move materials over cell surface
  43. Components of a representative cell Composition/Function

    Centrioles
    • Two cenrioles, at right angles; eaech composed of microtubules
    • Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division
  44. Components of a representative cell Composition/Function

    Ribosomes
    • RNA+ proteins fixed ribosomes bound to endoplasmic reticulum; free ribosomes scattered in cytoplasm
    • Synthesize proteins
  45. Components of a representative cell
    Composition/Function

    Proteasomes
    • Cyndrical structures that contain proteases( protein-breaking  enzymes)
    • Break down and recycle damaged or abnormal intracellular proteins
  46. Components of a representative cell Composition/Function
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • Network of membraneous channels that extend throughout the cytoplasm
    • synthesizes secretory products; provides intracellular storage and transport
  47. Components of a representative cell Composition/Function

    Rough ER
    • Has ribosomes attached to membranes
    • packages newly synthesized proteins
  48. Components of a representative cell Composition/Function

    Smooth ER
    • Lacks attached Ribosomes
    • synthesizes lipids aand carbohydrates
  49. Components of a representative cell Composition/Function

    Golgi apparatus
    • Stacks of flattened membranes that contain chambers
    • Stores,alters, and packages secretory products,
    • ; forms lysosomes
  50. Components of a representative cell Composition/Function

    Lysosomes
    • Vesicles that contain powerful digestive enzymes
    • Removes damaged organelles or pathogens within cells
  51. Components of a representative cell
    Composition/Function

    Peroxisomes
    • Vesicles that contain degradative enzymes 
    • Catabolize fats and other organic compounds;neutralize toxic compounds generated in the process
  52. Components of a representative cell Composition/Function

    Mitochondria
    • Double membrane with inner folds (Cristae) that enclose important metabolic enzymes 
    • produce 95% of the ATP required by the cell
  53. Components of a representative cell Composition/Function

    Nucleus
    Nucleoplasm that contain DNA, Nucleotides, Enzymes, and proteins; surrounded by double membrane (nuclear envelopse)

    Controls metabolism; stores and processes genetic information; controls protein synthesis
  54. Components of a representative cell
    Composition/Function

    Nucleolus
    • Dense region in the nucleoplasm that contains DNA and RNA 
    • Synthesizes RNA and assembles ribosomal subunits
  55. Cell Membrane contains:
    Lipids, Proteins, and carbohydrates.
  56. Major component of Cell membranes are:
    Phospholipids
  57. Phospholipid
    • Phosphate group (PO4 3-)
    • serves as a link between a diglyceride (a glycerol molecule bonded to two fatty acid "tails) and a non lipid "head"
  58. Hydrophilic
    Water loving; soluble in water
  59. Hyrdophobic
    Fear of water; insoluble in water
  60. Membrane proteins 
    (transmembrane proteins)
    • Recpetors
    • channels
    • carriers
    • enzymes 
    • anchors
    • identifiers
  61. Membrane Proteins 
    Function/Example

    Receptor Proteins
    • Sensitive to specific extracellular materials that bind them and trigger a change in a cells activity
    • Binding of the hormone insulin to membrane receptors increases the rate of glucose absorption by the cell.
  62. Membrane Proteins 
    Function/Example

    Channel proteins
    • Central pore, or channel, permist water, ions, and other soluts to bypass lipid protion of the cell membrane
    • Calcium ion movement through channels is crucial to muscle contractions and the conduction of nerve impulses
  63. Membrane Proteins
    Function/Example

    Carrier Proteins
    • Bind and transport solutes across the cell membrane. This process may or may not require energy.
    • Carrier proteins bring glucose into the cytoplasm and transport sodium, potassium, and calcium ions into and outs of the cell.
  64. Membrane Proteins 
    Function/Example
    Enzymes
    • Catalyse reactions in the extracellular fluid or within the cell
    • Dipeptides are broken down into amino acids by enzymes on the exposed membranes of the cell that line the intestional tract.
  65. Membrane Proteins 
    Function/Example

    Anchoring proteins
    • Attach the cell membrane to other structures and stabilize its position.
    • Inside the cell, anchor proteins bind to the cytoskeleton(network of supporting filaments) Outside the cell,anchor proteins attach the cell to extracellular protein fibers or to another cell.
  66. Membrane Proteins 
    Function/Example

    Recognition (identifier) proteins
    • Identify a cell as self or nonself, normal or abnormal, to the ammune system.
    • One group of such  recognition proteins is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
  67. Glcyoproteins and glycolipids preform:
    function as cell lubricants and adhesives , act as recpetors for extracellular compounds and form part of the recognition system that keeps the immune system from attacking the bodys own cells
  68. Permeability of the cell membrane
    Is the property that determins precisely which substances can enter or leave the cytoplasm
  69. Impermeable
    Nothing can cross a membrane
  70. Freely permeable
    If any substance can cross without difficulty
  71. Selectively permeable
    Which permits free passage of some materials and restricts that passage of others.
  72. Movement across the membrane may be active or passive
  73. Passive Processes
    Move Ions or molecules across the membrane without any energy expenditure by the cell
  74. Active processes
    require that the cell expend energy, usually in the form if ATP
  75. Passive Processes
    • Diffusion
    • Filtration
  76. Carrier mediated transport
    Active and passive process
  77. Vesicular transport-active
    • Endocytosis 
    • exocytosis
  78. Diffusion
    is the net movement of molecules from an area of relatively high concentration( of many collisions) to an area of relatively low concentration(of fewer collisions)
  79. Concentration gradient
    Represents the difference between the high and low concentration.
  80. As a result of the process of diffusion, molecules eventually become uniformly distributed, and concentration gradients are eliminated
  81. Cell membrane acts as a barrier that selectively restricts diffusion
  82. An Ion can independently move across a cell membrane  in one or two ways:
    • By moving across the lipid protion of the membrane
    • By passing through a channel protein in the membrane
  83. Osmosis
    Diffusion of water across a membrane
  84. Cell membrane is Freely permeable to water
  85. Important characteristics of osmosis
    • Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a membrane
    • Osmosis occurs across a selectivly permeable membrane that is freely permeable ot water but is not freely permeable to solutes
    • In osmosis water flows across a membrane toward the solution that has the higher concentration of solutes because the concentration of water is lower
  86. Osmotic Pressure
    is an indication of the force of water movement in a solution.
  87. Solutions of various solute concentrations are described as
    • isotonic
    • hypotonic
    • hypertonic
  88. Isotonic
    solution is one htat does not cause a net movement of water into or out of the cell.
  89. Hypotonic
    Higher concentration of water
  90. Hypertonic
    Higher concentration of solutes
  91. Filtration
    Hydrostatic pressue forces water across a membrane
  92. Carried Mediated transport
    Membrane proteins bind to specific ions or organic substrates and carry them across the cell membrane.
  93. Passive transport
    solutes are typically carried from an area of high concentraion to an area of low concentration
  94. Active transport
    Active transport may follow or oppose an existing concentration gradient.
  95. Facilitated Diffusion
    Compounds passively transported across the membrane by carrier proteins
  96. Steps of Faciliated diffusion
    • Molecule to be transported binds to a receptor site on the carrier protein
    • shape of protien changes and moves the molecule to the inside of the cell membrane. then released into the cytoplasm.
  97. Active Transport.
    the high energy bond in ato provides the energy needed to move ions or molecules across the membrane.
  98. All cells contain Ion pumps
  99. Exchange Pump
    Is a ion pump that exchanges ions simultaneously
  100. Sodium Potassium exchange pump
    3 Na+ for 2K
  101. Vesicular Transport
    • Materials move into or out of the cell in vesicles which are small membranous sacs that form at or fuse with the cell membrane.
    • Two major  vesicular transports are
    • Endocytosis
    • exocytosis
  102. Endocytosis
    is the packaging of extracellular materials in a vesicle at he cell surface for import into the cell.
  103. Major forms of endocytosis are
    Receptor-mediated endocytosis, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis.
  104. Receptor mediated endocytosis
    Involves formation of small vesicles at the membrane surface to import selected substances into the cell. this process produces vesicles that contain a specific target molecule in a high concentration.
  105. Ligands
    specific target molecules that receptors bind to
  106. Pinocytosis
    is the formation of small vesicles villed with extracellular fluid
  107. Phagocytosis
    Produces vesicles that contain objects that may be as large as the cell itself.
  108. Exocytosis
    a vesicle created inside the cell fuses with the cell membrane and discharges the contents into the extracellular enviroment.
  109. Movement in cells
    Process/affecting factors/substances involved

    Diffusion
    • Molecular movement of solutes; diretion determind by relative concentraitions
    • Steepness of gradient, molecular size, electric charge, lipid solubility, temperature
    • Small inorganic ions,lipidsoluablle materials (all cells)
  110. Movement in cells
    Process/affecting factors/substances involved

    Osmosis
    • Movement of water molecules toward solution that contains relatively higher solute concentraion; requires selectively permeable membrane
    • Concentration;gradient, opposing osmotic or hydrostatic pressure
    • Water only
  111. Movement in cells
    Process/affecting factors/substances involved
    Filtration
    • Movement of water susally with solute, by hydrostatic pressure; requires flitration membrane
    • ammount of pressure,size of pores in filtration membrane
    • Water and small ions (blood vessels)
  112. Movement in cells
    Process/affecting factors/substances involved

    Facilitated diffusion
    • Carrier proteins passively transport solutes down a concentration gradient
    • steepness of gradient,temperature, and availability of carrier proteins
    • Glucose and amino acids(all cells)
  113. Movement in cells
    Process/affecting factors/substances involved

    Active Transport
    • Carrier proteins actively transport solutes regardless of any concentration gradient
    • Availability of carrier proteins, substrate, and atp
    • NA+,K+,Ca2+ Mg3+ all cells, and other solutes by spcialized cells
  114. Movement in cells
    Process/affecting factors/substances involved

    Endocytosis
    • Creation of membranous vesicles that contain fluid of solid material
    • mechanisms depend on substances being moved into the cell:requires ATP
    • Fluids, nutrients(all cells) debris,pathogens)specialized cells)
  115. Movement in cells
    Process/affecting factors/substances involved

    Exocytosis
    • Fusion of vesicles that contain fluids and or solids with the cell membrane
    • Mechanism depends on substance being caried; requires ATP
    • Fluids ,debris (all cells)
  116. Cytosol
    intracellular fluid
  117. Organelles
    Internal structures that have specific functions essential to normal cell structre, maintence and homeostatis
  118. Membranous organelles
    • Nucleus
    • mitocondria
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • golgi apparatus
    • lysosomes
    • peroxisomes
  119. Cytoskeleton
    Is an internal protein famework of various thead like filaments and hollow ftubules that gives the cytoplasm strength and flexibility

    Think filaments only found in muscle cells
  120. Microfilaments
    Thinninst strands of the cytoskeleton composted of actin
  121. Think filaments are made of myosin
  122. Microtubules
    • Hollow tubes build from the globular protein that all cells have.
    • Provides structure and rigidity to cell and anchors position of major organelles
  123. During cell divison microtubules form the spindle apparatus which distributes the duplicated chomosome to opposite ends of the dividing cell
  124. Microvili
    • small fingerlike projections of the cell membrane
    • common features of cells tat are actively engaged in absorbing materials fom extracellular fluid
  125. Centrioles
    cylendrial structure that produces spindle fibers that move dna strands during cell division.
  126. Cilia
    Undergo movment that require ATP coordinated actions move fluids and secretions across the cells surface
  127. Ribosomes
    Organelles that manufacture proteins using information provided by the DNA of the nucleus.
  128. Free ribosomes
    Scattered throughout the cytoplasm
  129. Fixed ribosomes
    Are attacjed to the endoplasmic reticulum. Proteins manufactured by the fixed ribosomes enter the endoplasmic reticulum where they are modified and packaged for export
  130. Proteasomes
    Hollod clindrical organelles that contain an assortment of protein breaking enzymes or proteases
  131. Endoplasmic reticulum
    Is a network of intracellular membranes connected to the membranous nuclear envelope that surround the nucleus
  132. Endoplasmic reticulum functions
    • Synthesis
    • Storage
    • Transport
    • Detoxification
  133. Two types of endoplasmic reticulum
    • Smooth ER
    • Rough ER
  134. SER
    There are no ribosomes associated with SER. SER is the site where lipids and carbohydrates are produced
  135. RER
    contain fixed ribosomes, which give RER a beaded or rough appearance
  136. SER function
    • Syhthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol neeeded for maintence and growth of the cell
    • Synthesis of steroid hormones such as testosterone and estrogen
    • Synthesis and storage of glycerides and triglycerides in the liver cells and fat cells
    • synthesis of glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver cells
  137. RNR
    workshop and shiping depot for proteins
  138. Golgi apparatus
    • Consists of a set of 5 or 6 flattened membranous discs
    • The modification and packaging of secretions such as hormones and enzymes 
    • renewal or modification of the cell membrane
    • packaging of special enzymes for use in the cytosol
  139. Three types of vesicles created by the golgi apparatus
    • Lysosomes
    • secretory vesicles
    • membrane renewal vesicles

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