Nutrition 1020

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Author:
faulkner116
ID:
204639
Filename:
Nutrition 1020
Updated:
2013-03-03 16:45:40
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Module3
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Description:
The Gastrointestinal System 3.1
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  1. What is Digestion?
    The breaking down of food.

    • Big food parts into smaller ones (mechanical)
    • – Involves muscles and nerves

    • Big nutrients into smaller ones (chemical)
    • – Involves acid, enzymes, and hormones
  2. What is an Enzyme?
    Protein that catalyze metabolic reactions,and are necessary for most biochemical reactions to occur.

    Examples include: amylase for carbohydrate, protease for protein, and lipase for Lipids/Fat.
  3. Digestive enzymes specifically break down
    food substances.

    Examples include: amylase for carbohydrate, protease for protein, and lipase for Lipids/Fat.
  4. What is a Hormone?
    Chemicals produced by cells (typically in an endocrine gland), and are secreted, then affect the behavior of cells at distal sites in the body.

    Examples of hormones indigestion include:cholecystokinin and secretin.
  5. Mechanical digestion:
    chewing (mastication)
  6. Chemical digestion:
    saliva(lubrication) and amylase (breaks down digestible carbohydrate)
  7. What is a bolus?
    ball of food in the esophagus
  8. Peristalsis is a
    muscular wave action that occurs throughout the intestinal tract. It is controlled by the central nervous system and facilitates excretion by propelling food stuff through the body.
  9. The Esophagus is where
    Peristalsis begins.
  10. The Stomach is a
    muscular organ & storage reservoir.

    • Mechanically digests food by mixing & churning.

    • Chemically digests food with acid and some enzymes (pepsin).

    • Here, the bolus becomes chyme.
  11. The Small Intestine is where absorption occurs at
    Sites of Absorption:

    Duodenum: many nutrients

    Jejunum: Many nutrients

    Colon (large Intestine): water

    Ileum: only a selected nutrients
  12. Why do we signal the accessory organs?
    for assistance in digesting the food stuff.
  13. How do we signal our accessory organs?
    By hormones.

    - The cells of the intestinal wall produce the hormones cholecystokinin and secretin which enter the blood stream and signal the accessory organs.
  14. The Accessory Organs
    The Liver– Makes bile

    The Gallbladder– Stores bile

    The Pancreas

    – Makes enzymes for the chemical digestion of carbohydrates, proteins,and fats

    – Makes sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid
  15. The Function of Bile
    Emulsifier
  16. Mechanisms of Absorption

    Passive (Simple) Diffusion (Transport):
    Nutrients like water & lipid byproducts pass freely across membranes via a concentration gradient.
  17. Mechanisms of Absorption

    Facilitated Diffusion (Transport):
    Nutrients like water soluble vitamins diffuse across membranes using a specific/selective transport proteins.
  18. Mechanisms of Absorption

    Active Transport:
    Nutrients like glucose & amino acids move across membranes against a concentration gradient using a specific/selective transport protein & energy/ATP.
  19. Transportation of Nutrients
    • Blood vessels: water soluble nutrients

    • Lymphatic vessels: fat soluble nutrients
  20. Cellular Storage
    • • Short term
    • • Intermediate
    • • Long term
  21. Catabolic reactions:
    Breaking down(things get smaller). Involve hydrolysis reactions. Are degrading or destructive in nature.
  22. Anabolic reactions:
    Building up (things get bigger). Involve condensation reactions.Are synthesizing or constructive in nature.
  23. Homeostasis:
    The balance of catabolic and anabolic reactions in a person so a relatively stable internal environment or equilibrium is achieved.
  24. Excretion

    The Kidney:
    Water and water soluble waste.
  25. Excretion

    The Skin:
    Water and water soluble waste.
  26. Excretion

    The Lung:
    Carbon dioxide and water.
  27. Excretion

    The Colon (large intestine):
    Water is removed and waste (bacteria, fiber, sloughed cells, and undigested food) is compacted.

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