Nutrition 1020

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Author:
faulkner116
ID:
204644
Filename:
Nutrition 1020
Updated:
2013-03-03 16:46:06
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Module3
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Description:
Proteins: from foods to cells in the body 3.2
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  1. Protein Denaturation
    • Causes the protein to change shape or conformation.

    • The protein and the amino acids are still intact.

    • Can be caused by heat, alkali or acid treatments, or metals.

    • Is required before the protein can be digested.
  2. Protein Digestion
    • The protein strand is broken and the amino acids are released.

    • Occurs by the protease enzymes secreted by the pancreas and GI mucosal cells.

    • Amino acids are absorbed,transported to cells and then used to build proteins.
  3. Protein Synthesis
    We eat protein, denature &digest the protein, absorb &transport the amino acids to the cells, then within each cell,protein is made (synthesized)according to the DNA.
  4. Protein is synthesized in a
    process of converting DNA to RNA and then protein
  5. The Gene Encodes Proteins:

    The human genome is a complete set of
    genetic material organized into 46 chromosomes, located within the nucleus.
  6. The Gene Encodes Proteins:

    A chromosome is made of
    DNA and associated proteins.
  7. The Gene Encodes Proteins:

    The double helical structure of a DNA molecule is made up of
    two long chains of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a base.
  8. The Gene Encodes Proteins:

    The sequence of nucleotide bases (C, G, A, T) determines the
    amino acid sequence of proteins. These bases are connected by hydrogen bonding to form base pairs - adenine (A) with thymine (T), and guanine (G) with cytosine (C)
  9. The Gene Encodes Proteins:

    A gene is a segment of
    DNA that includes the information needed to synthesize one or more proteins.
  10. Protein Character is determined by:
    – How the 20 amino acids are combined together (the sequence).

    – The polypeptide strand folding & interacting.
  11. Types of Protein:

    Fibrous
    • Uniform in structure.

    • Either exclusively helical or sheet formation.

    • Examples are the proteins found in hair, muscle fibers &finger nails.
  12. Types of Protein:

    Globular
    • Have variation in structure.

    • Are part helical, part sheet,part random, or completely random.

    • Examples of globular proteins include blood,mucous, milk protein and egg white.
  13. Protein Functions
    1. Growth & tissue maintenance (replace, repair &possibly add LBM).

    2. Enzymes (catalysts).

    3. Antibodies, complement proteins, circulating components of immunity.

    4. Fluid & electrolyte balance (free proteins).

    5. Acid - base balance (H donors & acceptors).

    6. Energy (4 Cals/gm, requires N removal).

    7. Protein hormones like insulin & glucagon, secretin & cholecystokinin.

    8. Transportation of nutrients (lipoproteins).
  14. Adult Protein Need (DRI & AMDR)Sample Calculations
    • Eric weighs 90 Kg and ate 88 g of protein and 3000 Calories in one day.

    • • What is his DRI for protein?
    • – 90 Kg x 0.8 gm/Kg = 72 gm protein

    • • What % of his DRI for protein did he consume?
    • – 88 gm ÷ 72 gm x 100 = 122%

    • • What % of Calories in his diet came from protein?
    • – 88 g protein x 4 Cal/gm = 352 Cals from protein
    • – 352 Cals ÷ 3000 Cals x 100 = 11.7%
  15. Protein deficiency is called
    Kwashiorkor. The individual has peripheral edema and may not look undernourished.
  16. Protein-Energy deficiency is called
    Marasmus. The individual looks undernourished (skin &bones, starvation).
  17. In the U.S. individuals who are on starvation diets, poor,abused, or in hypermetabolic states can experience
    Kwashiorkor or Marasmus.
  18. Protein Excess is most common in
    athletes and fad dieters.
  19. Protein Excess:

    Increases risk of
    • – Dehydration.
    • – Liver & spleen enlargement.
    • – Accelerated kidney aging.
    • – Metabolic acidosis (with low carbohydrate intake)
    • – Vitamin B6 deficiency, Ca & Zn loss.
    • – Heart disease & cancer.
  20. What it takes to gain muscle:

    One pound muscle is:
    75% water, 20%protein, 5% other material like fat,glycogen, minerals, enzymes.
  21. One pound muscle equals
    105 grams protein
  22. To gain one pound muscle in 2 weeks an athlete would need an extra
    7-8 g protein/day intake.

    – 1 oz meat, 1 cup milk, 3 slices bread.

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