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the ability to make the correct association between the sounds and the symbols of language
What are the four types of Sight Words:
- High-frequency words - words that appear often in children's text (as, of, the)
- Words with irregular spelling (dove, great)
- Words that children want to know because they want to be able to write them (dinosaur, Burger King)
- Words that are introduced in content-area lessons in Social Studies and Science (insect, butterfly)
What is morphology?
The study of word formation
Structural analysis is...
the process of recognizing words by analyzing suffixes, prefixes and root words
Syllabic analysis is...
the process of recognizing words by analyzing the syllables in a word
What is a consonant?
A consonant occurs when airflow is somehow obstructed by your mouth, teeth or lips.
Continuous Consonant Sounds...
is a consonant sound that can be held and stretched out (f, l, m, n, r, s, v, z)
What is phonics?
Phonics is the ability to make the correct association between the sounds and symbols of a language.
Stop Consonant Sounds...
consonant sounds that must be uttered quickly (b, c, d, g, j, k, p, qu, t). also known as clipped consonants
Name the 4 types of words that should be taught as sight words?
- 1) High-frequency words - words that appear most frequently in the texts that children read.
- 2) Words with irregular spelling such as dove or great.
- 3) Words that children want to know, usually because they want to use them in their writing.
- 4) Terms specific to a subject/content area such as insect or butterfly.
The study of word formation.
What is structural analysis?
The process of recognizing words by analyzing prefixes, suffixes and base words.
Is the process of recognizing words by analyzing the syllables in a word.
The words surrounding a word provide clues to the meaning of an unknown word.
Reading at an appropriate pace and with appropriate expression.
is when a child is able to swiftly and accurately identify words.
are two-letter combinations that make one sound (example: ph).
Consonant blends are...
two- or three-letter sounds said rapidly and where each letter makes a sound (examples: pl, bl, spr)
sounds made when air leaving the lungs vibrates in the voice box and there is a clear passage from the voice box to your mouth.
Vowel sounds are said to be long when...
they say their own name, as in: bake and bite.
Vowel controlled digraphs are...
vowel combinations that make a single sound (example: boat and teach).
glided sounds made by vowel combinations as in oil and boy.
R-controlled vowels are...
neither long, nor short, as in: car, her, girl, hurt and in for.
are vowel sounds that are neither long or short as in: chalk, help, milk, cold and bull.
Inflected morphological units are...
- suffixes that do not change the part of speech of the root word
- examples: walk -> walked, big -> bigger
VC represents the...
word pattern vowel-consonant as in: am, it and up.
- consonant-vowel-consonant patterned words with the vowel as a short sound.
- Examples: cat, bat, lip, pet.
- Consonant-vowel-consonant-consonant as in:
- balk, cost and film.
Consonant-consonant-vowel-consonant as in brat, clap and skip. Most of these words begin with a consonant blend.
Consonant-vowel-vowel-consonant as in bait, team and goat. Many but not all words in this category have vowel digraphs (two vowels, one sound).
Consonant-vowel-consonant-E ending as in: made, like, cone and huge. Beware of irregular exceptions like love and live.
What are the six rules to divide words into syllables?
- ☐ Compound words, divide between the words (in-side, foot-ball).
- ☐ Single syllable prefix, divide between the prefix and the root (un-kind, pre-test).
- ☐ Two consonants in the middle of the word that are not digraphs, divide between the consonants (sis-ter, but-ter).
- ☐ Single consonants in the middle of the word between two vowels, the vowels preceding the consonant is short, divide after the consonant (cab-in, lev-el).
- ☐ Single consonant in the middle of a word between two vowels, the vowel preceding the consonant is long, divide before the consonant (be-long, fe-ver).
Why are some words never decodable?
Some words reflect the spelling of another language while others reflect the pronunciation shifts in the English language over time.
Sight words are...
words that are taught as a whole unit so that students do not need to decode. Many irregular words are neither nouns, adjectives or verbs but are often function words (of, the, was).
When should decodable words be taught as sight words early on?
When they are high-frequency words that children need to know and some sound-symbol relationship will not be taught until later on (ex: each).
Spelling Development - Precommunicative
Shows no understanding that words represent sounds. Child uses pictures instead of letters at random.
Spelling Development - Semi Phonetic
Children attempt to use letters to represent sounds, however, their knowledge of sound-symbol relationship is poorly developed (example: "baa" for banana).
Spelling Development - Phonetic
- Children at this stage know that letters represents sounds but often do not choose the correct letter-sound combinations.
- Example: I lik to flii a kit for I like to fly a kite.
Spelling Development - Orthographic
- At this stage children know most of the orthographic patterns of English. Mistakes tend to occur when sounds have different spellings.
- (ex: nayborhood)
Spelling Development - Conventional
The child spells all the words correctly. Mistakes happen when writing new words with irregular spellings.
Orthographic patterns are...
frequently occurring letter combinations in English (-ight, -tion).
Structural analysis is also referred to as...
Structural analysis/morphemic analysis is...
the process of decoding a multisyllabic word with an affix (prefix or suffix) added to a base word.
Syllabic analysis is...
the process of decoding a multisyllabic word by examining the word syllables.
Orthographic knowledge is...
what a person know about how to spell words, aka spelling.
the most elemental unit of meaning in a language.
What are the two types of morphemes in English?
- some words and affixes.
- elephant has only one morpheme
- walk-ed has two morphemes
- chair-s has two morphemes
Affixes are either...
prefixes or suffixes
before the root.
after the root.
Bound morphemes are...
- prefixes and suffixes that cannot occur alone and must be attached to a root word.
- Examples: un, -est
A free morpheme can be...
- uttered alone with meaning.
- Example: test
A syllable is...
pronounced with a single uninterrupted sounding of the voice. All syllable must have at least one vowel.
An open syllable...
ends with a vowel, as in be and go.
A closed syllable...
- ends with a consonant.
- Examples: both syllables in kick-ball and nor-mal.
Automaticity refers to...
effortless and rapid identification of words.
Steps in a direct-instruction, whole-to-part lesson
- ☐ Display several sentences, each with a word that contains the target prefix/suffix/root word.
- ☐ Read again the underlined target words and identify the key common element.
- ☐ Work with the student to identify the meaning of the prefix/suffix/root word. If they can't figure it out tell them what it means.
- ☐ Provide new words with the common element or have the children provide them.
Steps for direct-instruction, part-to-whole lesson
- ☐ Display the suffix/prefix/root word on the board and tell the children what it means.
- ☐ Prepare 4x6 cards with root words that can be added to the prefix/suffix to make words.
- ☐ Help children to put newly formed words into sentences which can be written on the board.
How would you teach a lesson on correct syllabication of words?
State the six rules for syllabication, then have children divide target words based on these rules and ensure correct pronunciation.
What types of words should children be taught to spell?
- ☐ Groups of words that have commonly occurring orthographic patterns: rimes, blends, dipthongs, digraphs, prefixes, suffixes, root words.
- ☐ High-frequency words, especially those that have irregular patterns.
- ☐ Common-need words, words that several children in the class have trouble spelling.
- ☐ Content-area words taken from other subjects.
- ☐ Words that relate to each other: synonyms, antonyms, homophones.
Self-study steps for children...
- ☐ Look at the word and say it to yourself.
- ☐ Say each letter in the word to yourself.
- ☐ Close your eyes and spell the word to yourself.
- ☐ Write the word, check your spelling.
- ☐ Write the word again.
Commonly misspelled orthographic patterns are...
- Pre spelled as per
- fore (as in forecast) spelled as for
- sub spelled as sup
- less spelled as les
- ness spelled as nes
- ion spelled as shun
- dropping the e from bake to baking
- doubling final consonant sound as in bat to batting
One important strategy when teaching spelling to English Learners is...
explicitly teaching common English roots and affixes.
What are two ways to differentiate spelling instruction for more advanced students?
- ☐ increase the pace or complexity of the instruction
- ☐ building on extending current knowledge and skills
In assessing structural analysis skills, syllabic analysis skills and orthographic skills it is important to ASSESS all three categories...
in both isolation and context.
An example of assessing structural and syllabic analysis skills in isolation would be...
to present a list of words for the child to read aloud while the teacher records any errors.
An example of an orthographic assessment in isolation would be...
a spelling test where the teacher reads a list of words aloud and the child writes them.
An example of a contextual orthographic assessment would be...
a review of the child's journal to find patterns in their spelling choices.
What skills need to be taught at the beginning decoding stage?
- - to read simple, new regular words from left to right
- - to generate sounds from all the letters
- - to blends sounds into a recognizable word
What steps in the instructional process should a teacher consider when planning instruction in decoding?
- - progress systematically from simple words and word length to more complex words
- - model (letter-sound correspondence, blending, reading whole words)
- - sequence words strategically
- - provide initial practice in controlled text
- - provide repeated opportunities for students to read words
- - use decodable text based on specific phonics lessons
- - teach necessary sight words
- page 121
What should a teacher consider when planning instruction in sight words?
- - high-frequency words tha tdo and do not conform to phonics and spelling patterns
- - the frequency with which a word occurs in students' reading materials
- - how visually similar or dissimilar a word is to other words
- - strategies to help students master the spelling of sight words
What skills and knowledge work in concert to support students' development of accurate word analysis?
- - phonics skills
- - sight-word knowledge
- - knowledge and skills in syllabic and structural analysis and orthography
What is an example of structural analysis?
decoding multisyllabic words formed by adding a prefix or suffix to a base word or morpheme
What is an example of syllabic analysis?
decoding multisyllabic words composed of common syllable patterns, such as open and closed syllables
Give examples of systematic, explicit instruction in structural and syllabic analysis and spelling of multisyllabic words.
- - teaching multisyllabic words formed by adding a common prefix or suffix to a base word
- - teaching multisyllabic words that follow common syllable patterns
- - teaching students to use knowledge of structural analysis and syllable patterns to spell multisyllabic words