Micro II Exam 1

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Micro II Exam 1
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Micro II Exam 1
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  1. a pyogenic cocci that is gram positive
    • Staphylococcus aureus
  2. secretes the enzyme hyaluronidase
    Staphylococcus aureus
  3. secretes the enzyme coagulase
    Staphylococcus aureus
  4. proof of __________ secretion is the most convenient and reliable measure of whether or not a staphylococcus is pathogenic or not
    coagulase
  5. secretes enterotoxin
    Staphylococcus aureus
  6. a gut poison that will lead to food poisoning
    secretes enterotoxin
  7. MRSA
    Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  8. Staphylococcus aureus portal of entry and exit
    • mouth
    • skin
  9. Staphylococcus aureus mode of transmission
    usually via direct contact with skin
  10. in the case of ________ ______ ______, the organism or it's enterotoxin must be ingested so transmission is via indirect contact
    staphylococcal food poisoning
  11. the most common form of Staphylococcal disease in man
    skin abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    pathogenicity
  12. _________ infects the hair folicle causing a boil or furuncle
    skin abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    pathogenicity
  13. this infection may spread to the subcutaneous layers of the skin producing deep-seated boils
    carbuncles

    pathogenicity

    Staphylococcus aureus
  14. carbuncles may spread even more and form pockets of pus that is an infection
    cellulitis or phlegmon

    pathogenicity

    Staphylococcus aureus
  15. the lesions are characterized by the pressure of a thick, yellow pus
    cellulitis or phlegmon

    pathogenicity

    Staphylococcus aureus
  16. Staphylococcus aureus may cause the more serious infections of (2)
    scalded (staphylococcol) skin syndrome (SSSS)

    toxic epidermal necrolysis
  17. caused by the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin
    food poisoning

    Staphylococcus aureus
  18. one of the most common forms of food poising
    food poisoning

    Staphylococcus aureus
  19. this toxin is heat-stable
    staphylococcal enterotoxin
  20. heat-stable
    heating does not destroy it
  21. the toxin will affect the vomit reflex in the brain within 4 to 6 hours after ingestion
    staphylococcal enterotoxin

    food poisoning

    Staphylococcus aureus
  22. resolves itself within eight hours without significant harmful effects to the host
    staphylococcal enterotoxin

    food poisoning

    Staphylococcus aureus
  23. often forms in foods such as:

    mayonaise containing meat salads
    cream filled pastries
    staphylococcal enterotoxin

    food poisoning

    Staphylococcus aureus
  24. it is common for S. aureus to cause infections in those with weakened  immune systems such as bronchopneumonia that occurs after a primary bacterial or viral infection
    staphylococcal enterotoxin

    secondary infections

    Staphylococcus aureus
  25. hospital acquired infections, one of the most common is MRSA
    staphylococcal enterotoxin

    nosocomial infections

    Staphylococcus aureus
  26. caused by a toxin produced bu S. aureus called TSST-1

    this toxin induces hypotension
    toxic shock syndrome

    Staphylococcus aureus
  27. was once a common disease of menstruating women who used super absorbent tampons
    toxic shock syndrome

    Staphylococcus aureus
  28. the tampons caused excessive drying of the vaginal mucosa as well as providing a good culture medium for toxin-producing bacteria
    toxic shock syndrome

    Staphylococcus aureus
  29. the injured vaginal mucosa then allows for the entry of the toxin in the blood stream
    toxic shock syndrome

    Staphylococcus aureus
  30. could possibly lead to circulatory collapse
    toxic shock syndrome

    Staphylococcus aureus
  31. a pyogenic cocci that is gram-positive
    Staphylococcus pyogenes
  32. causes several rapidly progressive diseases and leads to some serious sequelae
    Staphylococcus pyogenes
  33. classified as a Beta Hemolytic streptococci because when grown on blood agar, complete hemolysis is shown by a clear ring of no blood cells around the colony
    Staphylococcus pyogenes
  34. ________ can cause skin infections like the ____________ but will rarely produce abscesses
    1. streptococci

    2. staphylococci
  35. Staphylococcus pyogenes port of entry and exit
    skin and mouth
  36. Staphylococcus pyogenes mode of transmission
    either direct or indirect contact
  37. the most common disease caused by this streptococci
    septic sore throat (streptococcal sore throat)

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  38. a common precursor to other streptococcal infections such as rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis
    septic sore throat (streptococcal sore throat)

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  39. ____ _____ _____ symptoms often occur suddenly and include: (10)
    1. septic sore throat (streptococcal sore throat)

    • beefy red throat
    • malaise
    • fever
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • chills
    • headache
    • rapid heartbeat
    • children may have convulsions
    • swollen tonsils & cervical lymph nodes

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  40. children under four years of age often only have a runny nose
    septic sore throat (streptococcal sore throat)

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  41. cough, laryngitis, and stuffy nose are very uncommon in this disease and may indicate another cause of the illness such as a cold or allergy
    septic sore throat (streptococcal sore throat)

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  42. a disease that is a result of S. pyogenes being introduced into the uterus during childbirth
    Puerperal sepsis

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  43. it causes an inflammation reaction in the uterus
    Puerperal sepsis

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  44. before the use of antiseptic birthing procedures, this disease was a frequent cause of death
    Puerperal sepsis

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  45. a result of a streptococcal sore throat
    Scarlet fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  46. it is caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacteria erythrogenic toxin
    Scarlet fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  47. responsible for a widespread, pink-red rash most obvious on the abdomen, shoes of the chest, and in the skin folds
    Erythrogenic toxin

    Scarlet fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  48. also characterized by:
    fever
    flushed face
    inflamed red tongue
    pale area around the mouth
    dark red lines in the skin folds
    Scarlet fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  49. the outer layer of reddened skin often peels after the fever has subsided
    Scarlet fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  50. follows strep throat of about three weeks duration
    Rheumatic fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  51. an inflammatory disease of connective tissue, the joints, heart and brain
    Rheumatic fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  52. fever & pain are prominent manifestations
    Rheumatic fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  53. involves the heart valves and causes a general inflammation of the heart called carditis
    Rheumatic fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  54. it may result in permanent valvular damage that compromises the function of the heart
    Rheumatic fever

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  55. a pyogenic cocci that is gram-positive
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  56. a normal flora bacteria of the upper respiratory tract
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  57. will only cause disease if the host is immunocompromised, if the lining of the respiratory tract has been damaged by another condition, or if someone had had their spleen removed because the antibodies against the bacteria are formed in the spleen
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  58. it appears as a pair of cells that have a characteristic lance or lanceolate shape (a diplococcus)
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  59. no toxins or enzymes of significance are produced
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  60. it produces a very important capsule without the capsule the organism is unable to produce disease
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  61. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) portals of entry & exit
    through the mouth and nose
  62. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) modes of transmission
    rarely spreads from person to person

    but by direct and indirect contact
  63.  the classic disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
    lobar pneumonia
  64. causes an accumulation of fluid in the alveolar sacs of the lungs
    lobar pneumonia

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  65. death usually occurs by asphyxiation due to the inability of the lungs to exchange respiratory gases
    lobar pneumonia

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  66. inflammation of the lining of the brain & spinal cord
    meningitis

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  67. the second most common cause of meningitis
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)

    pathogenicity
  68. a common cause of middle ear infection in children
    Otitis media

    pathogenicity

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  69. a pyogenic cocci that is gram-negative
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  70. occurs in pairs

    (a diplococcus)
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  71. organized  in a coffee bran or kidney bean arrangement
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  72. common normal flora of the mucous membranes of the respiratory and intestinal tracts
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  73. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus) portals of entry & exit
    reproductive system & anus
  74. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus) modes of tranmission
    direct sexual contact for gonorrhea & opthalmia neonatorium

    indirect contact for vulvovaginitis
  75. pili or fimbriae serve to adhere the bacteria to the mucosal surface of the urethra
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus) ... for the gonococcus specifically NOT for all Neisseria
  76. pili attach so well that the passage of urine will not wash it away
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  77. a venereal disease associated with an inflammatory reaction on the mucous membranes of the urogenital tract
    Gonorrhea

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  78. in men; it appears as symptoms of acute urethritis within 2 to 7 days of infection:

    painful urination

    an exudate from the urethra containing pus and numerous WBCs

    frequent and urgent need to urinate
    Gonorrhea

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  79. in men; may spread to the testes and cause:

    orchitis
    epididymitis
    Gonorrhea

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  80. in women; first symptoms may appear 7 to 21 days following infection

    usually remain mild, if they appear at all
    Gonorrhea

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  81. in women; it may only be discovered after their partners been diagnosed
    Gonorrhea

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  82. some cases are more intense though and the woman may exhibit many of the same or similar symptoms as men
    Gonorrhea

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  83. in women; most cases are asymptomatic & chronic
    Gonorrhea

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  84. in women; the infection may spread to the peritoneum, ovaries, fallopian tubes, or cervix;
    if this occurs, the infection may cause deep pelvic pain or tenderness during sexual intercourse;
    the disease would then be referred to as PID or pelvic inflammatory disease
    Gonorrhea

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  85. disease of the eye of newborns
    Ophthalmia neonatorum

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  86. contracted when the infant passes through the birth canal of a mother who is infected with the gonococcus
    Ophthalmia neonatorum

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  87. it may be treated with antibiotics or a solution of silver nitrate may be applied to the eyes
    Ophthalmia neonatorum

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  88. a non-venereal disease of the urogenital tract in pre-pubescent girls
    Vulvovaginitis

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  89. contracted from inanimate objects or articles that may harbor secretions from older girls infected with the gonococcus
    Vulvovaginitis

    pathogenicity

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  90. a pyogenic cocci that is gram-negative
    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  91. occur in pairs
    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  92. organized in a coffee bean or kidney bean arrangement
    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  93. common normal flora of the mucous membranes of the respiratory and intestinal tracts
    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  94. the only other characteristic different from those of the gonococcus is the meningococcus is a strict parasite of humans
    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  95. neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus) portals of entry & exit
    through the mouth & nose
  96. neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus) modes of transmission
    direct or indirect contact with a carrier or person ill with meningitis
  97. neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus) modes of transmission
    spread via respiratory droplets that have been aspirated into the nasopharynx
  98. neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus) modes of transmission
    the organism attaches to the non-ciliated epithelial cells of the nasopharynx with fimbriae
  99. the presence of the meningococcus in the blood
    meningococcemia

    pathogenicity

    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  100. an initial infection occurs in the nasopharynx
    meningococcemia

    pathogenicity

    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  101. the bacteria enter the blood stream via the cervical lymph nodes
    meningococcemia

    pathogenicity

    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  102. symptoms of _________ may be:

    fever
    malaise
    petechia
    purpura
    meningococcemia

    pathogenicity

    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  103. may lead to hemorrhaging of the adrenal glands
    meningococcemia

    pathogenicity

    neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  104. Waterhouse-Frederichsen syndrome
    hemorrhaging of the adrenal glands
  105. several different bacteria and viruses may cause meningitis but only ______ __________ is referred to as the meningococcus
    neisseria meningitidis
  106. Neisseria meningitidis causes an ___________ form of ________ where many people become infected in a short amount if time
    1. epidemic

    2. meningitis
  107. after meningococcemia has become established, the organism will cross the blood-brain barrier and localize in the meninges
    epidemic meningitis
  108. the protective layers of tissue around the brain and spinal cord
    meninges
  109. will cause an inflammation of the meninges with the following symptoms:

    severe headache
    stiff neck
    death within 6 to 8 hours of onset of symptoms
    epidemic meningitis
  110. the most often used drug to treat meningococcemia and meningococcal meningitis
    penicillin
  111. What is the inflammatory disease of connective tissue, the joints, heart and brain that can
    follow a three-week bout with strep throat?
    Rheumatic fever
  112. What bacteria appear in a diplococcus formation?
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)

    Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  113. What bacterium produces the toxin that causes toxic shock syndrome?
    Staphylococcus aureus
  114. Which bacterium is classified as a strict parasite of humans?
    Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  115. The spread of a staph infection into the subcutaneous layers of the skin may produce what?
    carbuncles
  116. What is the most common disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes?
    Septic sore throat (Streptococcal sore throat)
  117. Which bacteria are gram-positive?
    Staphylococcus aureus

    Streptococcus pyogenes

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
  118. Which bacteria are gram-negative?
    Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus)

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus)
  119. What is the condition of the presence of the meningococcus in the blood?
    Meningococcemia
  120. Erythrogenic toxin plays a role in what disease?
    Scarlet fever
  121. Which bacterium exhibits a characteristic lance or lanceolate shape?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
  122. Which bacterium will cause the formation of a furuncle?
    Staphylococcus aureus
  123. How is staphylococcal food poisoning transmitted?
    mayonnaise containing meat salads

    cream filled pastries
  124. Which bacterium secretes enterotoxin that will cause food poisoning?
    Staphylococcus aureus
  125. Which disease is due to an organism crossing the blood-brain barrier?
    Epidemic meningitis
  126. Which disease is often asymptomatic and chronic in women?
    Gonorrhea
  127. Which bacterium is a common cause of nosocomial infections
    MRSA
  128. What disease is treated with a solution of silver nitrate?
    Ophthalmia neonatorum
  129. What is the second most common cause of meningitis?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  130. Which bacterium is unable to produce disease without the presence of a capsule?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  131. What condition may lead to hemorrhaging of the adrenal glands?
    meningococcemia
  132. Considering all of the conditions we discussed, in what situation is hypotension manifested?
    Toxic shock syndrome
  133. What drug is used drug to treat an infection with the meningococcus?
    Penicilin
  134. What is the best measure of whether or not a staphylococcus is pathogenic?
    secretion of hyaluronidase and coagulase
  135. Which bacterium commonly causes infections like bronchopneumonia in those with weakened immune systems?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  136. Which bacterium causes a zone of beta hemolysis when grown on blood agar?
    Streptococcus pyogenes
  137. What disease rarely spreads from person to person?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  138. What is the most common form of staphylococcal disease in man?
    septic sore throat (streptococcal sore throat)
  139. Which bacterium is organized in a coffee or kidney bean arrangement?
    Neisseria sp.
  140. Which bacterium produces NO toxins or enzymes to be pathogenic?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  141. Which bacterium would not normally cause disease unless a host has had the spleen removed?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  142. ln what disease do the pili play an important role?
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  143. What disease is characterized by dark red lines in the skinfolds?
    Scarlet fever

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