Essential Elements

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  1. 3 requirements to be an essential element
    • required for completion of life cycle
    • not replaceable by another element
    • directly involved in plant metabolism
  2. how many essential elements exist?
  3. how many categories of essential elements exist?
    • 4
    • essential non-mineral elements
    • primary nutrients/fertilizer elements
    • secondary nutrients
    • micronutrients
  4. what are the essential non-mineral elements
    • Carbon (C)
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Hydrogen (H)
  5. Why are non-mineral elements considered non-minerals?
    they are gasses
  6. What are the primary nutrients/fertilizer elements?
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Phosphorus (P)
    • Potassium (K)
  7. What is speical about fertilizer elements?
    needed in greater amounts by plants and added to soil through fertilizer
  8. What are the secondary nutrients?
    • Calcium (Ca)
    • Magnesium (Mg)
    • Sulfur (S)
  9. What is special about secondary nutrients?
    needed by plants in lesser amounts than primary nutrients
  10. What are the micronutrients?
    • Boron (B)
    • Iron (Fe)
    • Manganese (Mn)
    • Copper (Cu)
    • Zing (Zn)
    • Molybdenum (Mo)
    • Chlorine (Cl)
    • Nickel (N)
  11. What is special about micronutrients?
    they are needed in the smallest amounts by plants
  12. What are beneficial elements?
    elements that promote plant growth but are not absolutely necessary for completion of life cycle
  13. What are the beneficial elements?
    • Silicon (Si)
    • Sodium (Na)
    • Cobalt (Co)
    • Selenium (Se)
  14. What are mobile elements?
    elements that can be translocated from one part of the plant to another after they've been absorbed in plant tissue
  15. When there is a deficiency of mobile elements, where does it show up?
    in older leaves
  16. What are immobile elements?
    elements that can't be translocated from one part to another after being absorbed into plant tissue
  17. When there is a deficiency of immobile elements, where does it show up?
    younger leaves first
  18. Soil is the...
    most basic natural resource in agriculture
  19. Soil properties...
    influence crop adaptation
  20. extreme variations exist in........of soil.
    both physical and chemical properties
  21. properties of soil determine
    if a crop can be grown successfully
  22. What are soils composed of?
    pore spaces and solid materials in varying proportions
  23. Pore spaces contain
    air and water in relative quantities depending on pore size and weather
  24. What types of pores are there?
    • non-capillary
    • capillary
  25. non-capillary pores are
    larger pores that contain air except immediately after periods of rainfall
  26. capillary pores are
    smaller pores that hold water against the force of gravity for plant use
  27. plants require what for optimum growth?
    • air
    • water
  28. capillary and non-capillary pores need to exist in soil in
    near equal volumes
  29. solid portions of the soil contain
    • organic matter
    • minerals
  30. what is organic matter?
    plant and animal residues in all stages of decomposition
  31. organic matter represents how much mineral top soil by weight?
  32. what does organic matter contribute to the soil?
    highly desirable physical, chemical and biotic qualities
  33. soil make up is divided into 3 categories based on
    particle size
  34. What are the 3 categories of make up?
    • sand (large)
    • silt (intermediate)
    • clay (smallest)
  35. what is a soil texture triangle?
    used to determine texture of a soil
  36. What does soil texture triangle do?
    shows the relative proportions of particles
  37. What is soil structure?
    the arrangement of soil particles
  38. the most desirable type of aggregation of soil separates are
    • granular
    • crumb
  39. moist soil crumb/granular structures crumble when
    they are tilled or handled
  40. what are the advantages of crumb/granular soil structure?
    • plant root growth
    • water movement
    • aeration
    • tillage case
  41. what is soil reaction
    the measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of soil
  42. soil reaction is expressed as a
     pH or the potential of hydrogen/hydrogen ions
  43. soil reaction affects the
    availability of nutrients for plant uptake
  44. most crops perform best when soils are
    slightly acidic to neutral
  45. a neutral pH would be
  46. acidic soils have a pH of
    greather than 7.0
  47. alkaline soils have a pH of
    less than 7.0
Card Set:
Essential Elements
2013-03-03 21:56:52
Agronomy Lab

lab quiz
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