Transit in Transition MidTerm

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Transit in Transition MidTerm
2013-03-06 19:43:59
Transit Transition MidTerm

Transit in Transition MidTerm
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  1. Peak Oil
    • Point in time when maximum rate of petroleum extraction is reached after which the rate of petroleum extraction is expected to enter terminal decline.
    • major problem for agro, pharm and plastic industries.
  2. Energy returned on Energy Invested (EROEI)
    • AKA (EROI) energy returned on investment
    • The Ratio of the amount of usable energy aquired from a particular energy source to the amount of energy expended to obtain that energy resource. When the EROEI is equal to or less than 1 it is considered a "energy sink" and can no longer be used as a primary energy source.
    • Oil has a EROEI of 30 to 100
  3. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
    • Mode of transportation that combines the quality of rail transit with the flexibility of bus transportation.
    • Dedicated lanes
    • fewer stops and highfrequency
    • Sheltered stops were rides prepay
    • Raised platforms to facilitate boarding
    • Use of Technology to track buses and control traffic lights.
  4. Mass Motorization
    A later stage in the process of motorization that entails extensive ownership of cars and trucks for moving people and goods. David W. Jones defined it as 400 MV/ 1000 pop.

    • U.S. reached that point in 1958
    • in 2000 23 countries had reached mass motorization
  5. Automobility
    • both a mode of movement and the conscious attitude toward it
    • Combined importance of the motor vehicle, the automobile industry and highway, plus emotional connotations this has for Americans
  6. Taylorization
    • Fredrick Taylor
    • AKA Scientific Management
    • Attempt to apply science to engineering of process and management
    • Efficiency and elimination of waste
    • Standardization of best practices 
    • Transforming craft production into mass production
  7. Eisenhower Interstate system
    • Interstate highway system named after Dwight D. Eisenhower who pushed for its creation
    • Authorized by the Federal aid highway act of 1956
    • Dramatically realigned transportation priorities
  8. Smart Growth
    • An urban planning and transportation theory that emphasis
    • Compact walk able urban centers to fight sprawl
    • compact transit orientated, walk able, bike friendly land use
    • Complete streets and mixed-use development
  9. Pervasive motorization
    • Less than 10% of workforce walks or uses public transportation to commute to work
    • U.S. reached it in 1980
  10. Negro Motorist Green Book
    • Started by Victor H. Green
    • Published stories extolling driving from blacks
    • Travel guide for blacks that told them where they would be welcomed and where to avoid
    • Also acted as a place for blacks to voice their opinions and tell their stories
  11. Red Line/ Dan Ryan Extension
    • Proposal to extend the red line south to 130th street adding 4 stations.
    • Was supposed to be part of the original constuction
  12. CTA
    • Chicago Transportation Authority
    • Publicly chartered company took over for the privately owned but publicly regulated "The Chicago Rapid Transit Company"
  13. Light Rail
    • Subway or El
    • Electrified
    • Usually exclusive right of way 
    • Cheaper to build then full heavy rail
  14. Humboldt Park El
    • Built in 1895 by the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad Company.
    • Was one of the spurs off of what we now call the Blue Line
    • Ran west along North Avenue From the Damen stop
    • Closed in 1952 replaced by North Avenue bus
  15. Curitiba Brazil
    • One of the first successful BRT systems
    • Began in 1974
    • Reduced travel times and fuel consumption
    • 25% of commuters switched from cars to BRT
  16. Chicago's "Edge Cities"
    • Suburbs with large employment bases and cultural offerings
    • Would not exist with out city
    • Situated along highway spurs
    • South West- Aurora, Lombard
    • North- Skokie, lake forest
  17. Transit commute share
  18. Freeway Entrance Ramp Meters/lights
    Signals or meters on a limited access highway meant to regulate the flow of traffic onto the freeway to reduce congestion and facilitate flow.
  19. The Kheel Plan
    Theodore Kheel proposed doubling New York's congestion fee for entering Manhattans CBD to 16 dollars, raising bridge and tunnel tolls and reducing transit fees to zero.
  20. The City Car
    • Designed at MIT
    • concept vehicle
    • Electric 2 seater
    • fold and stack
    • fit together end to end
  21. Power (in politics)
    The ability to get people to do what you want
  22. The great Migration
    Movement of blacks from the south to the Frost Belt cities in search of work and some sense of equality
  23. The Frost Belt
    • The Northeast, great lakes and the upper midwest
    • Known for cold and snowy weather
    • Was the economic heart of industrial U.S.
    • Decline began in 80's as what was left of manufacturing moved to the sun belt
  24. Liberalism
    • Individualism and autonomy
    • Conception of the individual as a private being
    • believe in rational thought
    • In relation to transit:
    • Preference for cars over mass transit
  25. Bureau of public Roads
    • One of the precursors to the Federal Highway Administration
    • Did the research, wrote the reports and pushed for the interstate highway system
    • 1939 plan first call for federal priority for a particular set of national highways
  26. The Great Depression
    • Final blow to streetcar industry ridership tanked 
    • Switch to cheaper bus service
    • New Deals Fair Labor Standards Act created 40 hour workweek. Intended to spur employment, but raised the costs of mass transit
    • New deal spending on highways and not mass transit locked in our current car centered infrastructure and culture.
  27. Ford Motor Company
    • Henry Ford
    • First mass produced car the Model T in 1908
    • Dominated the industry between 1906 and 1926
  28. General Motors
    • Began marketing multiple lines with different styles for different demographic markets in the 20's
    • Shift from selling cars as utility to symbol of individuality
    • In the 50's their dominance lead to price collusion among the american companies stagnating innovation and opening the door to imports.
  29. Autonomy
    • one who gives oneself there own law
    • Capacity of a rational individual to make their own informed, uncoerced desicion
  30. Subjectivity
  31. Limited Access Expressways
    • Highways that are separated by grade
    • Divided highways
    • Have limited number of entrances and exits
  32. The loop
    • Community area in downtown Chicago
    • Defined by the Union Loop now known as the Loop
    • Pushed by Charles Tyson Yerkes
    • Opened piecemeal starting in 1895 first full circuit in 1897
    • Connected the lines that served the rest of city
  33. The Sun Belt
    • The south and southwest
    • Warm climate
    • Very little mass transit
    • Large pop growth since 1960's
    • later industrialization less union's
    • Growth in manufacturing since 1980's
  34. The Orange Line
    • opened in 1993
    • serves the south west side ending at Midway Airport
    • Built to be extended in the future
    • Built mostly following old freight right of ways
  35. Oil Shock/OPEC Oil Embargo
    • U.S. Pulls out of Bretton Woods Accord allows dollar to float rather than be pegged to Gold standard
    • Oil priced in dollars took a hit in profitability
    • OPEC pegged oil to Gold causing Oil shock as prices fluctuated
    • large price hikes in 1973-74
    • 1973 embargo by the organization of the petroleum exporting countries
    • Used as a weapon against West in the Arab war against Israel
  36. Suburban Sprawl
    • Low density
    • Car based
    • single use zoning
    • individualistic
  37. National City Lines
    • Bus company that was reconfigured as a holding company with equity from General Motors, Firestone tires, Standard oil and Phillips petroleum
    • Planned to buy up failing streetcar companies and convert then to bus service
    • Convicted of Conspiring to acquire control of a number of transit companies in 1949
  38. Congestion pricing
    • Charging a fee to enter busy city centers during rush hour
    • Done in London and other parts of Europe
    • Has not worked that well
  39. Streetcars
    • One of the earliest forms of mass transit
    • Mostly privately owned companies
    • Ran on tracks
    • More efficient than horse drawn carriage
    • Companies built a lot of the infrastructure of modern cities