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What are the 4 layers of the GIT?
- Muscularis externa
What are the 2 types of ganglia in the enteric NS?
- Myenteric plexus
- Submucosal plexus
What are the 2 classifications of neurohormones (3 interchangeable words per classification)?
List the 11 peptides.
- Substance P
- Gastrin-releasing peptide
List the 4 non-peptides.
- Ach (acetylcholine)
- 5-HT (serotonin)
What does gastrin stimulate?
- Gastric secretion
- Mucosal growth
What does CCK stimulate?
- Pancreatic enz secretion
- Gallbladder contraction
What does secretin stimulate?
Pancreatic bicarb secretion
What are the 3 areas of the monogastric stomach and their roles?
- Fundus - store, gases
- Corpus - mix
- Antrum - propel
What is MMC and what are it's 3 phases?
Migrating Myoelectric Complex - SI motility
- 3 Phases:
- 1. Quiescent Period
- 2. Irregular Contraction
- 3. Regular Contraction
Name the epithelial cells present in the esophagus, stomach, SI and LI.
- Esophagus - stratified squamous
- Stomach - cuboidal
- SI - columnar
- LI - crypts
What are the 4 GIT functions?
What are the 4 salivary glands?
What is saliva composed of?
What are the exocrine secretions of the pancreas?
What are the endocrine secretions of the pancreas?
What 2 cells control exocrine secretions in the pancres?
- Acinar cells - proenz, enz
- Ductular cells - Bicarb
What 2 pathways are acinar and ductular cells a part of?
Fat/AA --> CCK --> Acinar cells --> Enz
H+ --> Secretin --> Ductular cells --> Bicarb
What is bile composed of?
- Bile acids
- Water, electrolytes
What are the 4 types of digestion?
What 3 levels increase SA?
- Kerckring folds (3X)
- Villi (10X)
- Microvilli (20-30X)
What are the 5 types of epithelial cells?
- Columnar absorptive cells
- Mucous (goblet) cells
- Enteroendocrine cells
- Paneth cells
- Undifferentiated columnar cells
List the 6 steps of Digestion/Absorption of Fates
- 1. Bile salts emulsify fats
- 2. Pancreatic lipase converts fats to FFAs/monoglyceride
- 3. Micelle formation
- 4. Diffusion into cells
- 5. Absorption of chylomicron to lacteal
- 6. Absorption of bile salts in ileum
Trace blood through the splanchic circulation starting at the heart.
- Mesenteric Artery OR Hepatic Artery
- Pancreas/SI/LI OR Liver
- Mesenteric Vein
- Portal Vein
- Peripheral Tissues OR Vena Cava
What are Kupffer cells?
Macrophages in the liver
What is the composition of bone?
- 45% Ash
- 35% Organic Matter
- 20% Water
What are osteoblasts?
Cells that synthesize and secrete proteins to form organic matrix of bones
What are osteocytes?
- Osteoblasts entrapped within bone matrix (lacunae).
- Revert back to osteoblasts as bone matrix dissolves.
What are osteoclasts?
Macrophages of bone tissue, responsible for resorption
What are chondrocytes?
Cells that form cartilage
Membrane that lines outer surface of bone
- 1 & 3. Osteoblasts
- 2. Osteocytes
- 4. Osteoclasts
- 5. Bone Matrix
What are the functions of bones?
- Protection of organs