AN SC 311

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Author:
ebacker
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204708
Filename:
AN SC 311
Updated:
2013-03-03 19:06:52
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ANSC311
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Description:
Metabolic Physiology of Domestic Animals
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  1. What are the 4 layers of the GIT?
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Muscularis externa
    • Serosa
  2. What are the 2 types of ganglia in the enteric NS?
    • Myenteric plexus
    • Submucosal plexus
  3. What are the 2 classifications of neurohormones (3 interchangeable words per classification)?
    • Intrinsic/endogenous/peptides
    • Extrinsic/exogeneous/non-peptides
  4. List the 11 peptides.
    • CGRP
    • CCK
    • Enkephalins
    • Substance P
    • Enteroglucagon
    • Gastrin-releasing peptide
    • Gastrin
    • VIP
    • Galanin
    • Motilin
    • Somatostatin
  5. List the 4 non-peptides.
    • Ach (acetylcholine)
    • NO
    • ATP
    • 5-HT (serotonin)
  6. What does gastrin stimulate?
    • Gastric secretion
    • Mucosal growth
  7. What does CCK stimulate?
    • Pancreatic enz secretion
    • Gallbladder contraction
  8. What does secretin stimulate?
    Pancreatic bicarb secretion
  9. What are the 3 areas of the monogastric stomach and their roles?
    • Fundus - store, gases
    • Corpus - mix
    • Antrum - propel
  10. What is MMC and what are it's 3 phases?
    Migrating Myoelectric Complex - SI motility

    • 3 Phases:
    • 1. Quiescent Period
    • 2. Irregular Contraction
    • 3. Regular Contraction
  11. Name the epithelial cells present in the esophagus, stomach, SI and LI.
    • Esophagus - stratified squamous
    • Stomach - cuboidal
    • SI - columnar
    • LI - crypts
  12. What are the 4 GIT functions?
    • Motility
    • Secretion
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
  13. What are the 4 salivary glands?
    • Zygomatic
    • Sublingual
    • Parotid
    • Mandibular
  14. What is saliva composed of?
    • Buffer
    • Na, Cl
    • Amylase
  15. What are the exocrine secretions of the pancreas?
    • Proenz
    • Enz
    • Bicarb
  16. What are the endocrine secretions of the pancreas?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  17. What 2 cells control exocrine secretions in the pancres?
    • Acinar cells - proenz, enz
    • Ductular cells - Bicarb
  18. What 2 pathways are acinar and ductular cells a part of?
    Fat/AA --> CCK --> Acinar cells --> Enz

    H+ --> Secretin --> Ductular cells --> Bicarb
  19. What is bile composed of?
    • Bile acids
    • Bilirubin
    • Water, electrolytes
  20. What are the 4 types of digestion?
    • Mechanical
    • Chemical
    • Enzymatic
    • Microbial
  21. What 3 levels increase SA?
    • Kerckring folds (3X)
    • Villi (10X)
    • Microvilli (20-30X)
  22. What are the 5 types of epithelial cells?
    • Columnar absorptive cells
    • Mucous (goblet) cells
    • Enteroendocrine cells
    • Paneth cells
    • Undifferentiated columnar cells
  23. List the 6 steps of Digestion/Absorption of Fates
    • 1. Bile salts emulsify fats
    • 2. Pancreatic lipase converts fats to FFAs/monoglyceride
    • 3. Micelle formation
    • 4. Diffusion into cells
    • 5. Absorption of chylomicron to lacteal
    • 6. Absorption of bile salts in ileum
  24. Trace blood through the splanchic circulation starting at the heart.
    • Heart
    • Aorta
    • Mesenteric Artery OR Hepatic Artery
    • Pancreas/SI/LI OR Liver
    • Mesenteric Vein
    • Portal Vein
    • Liver
    • Peripheral Tissues OR Vena Cava
    • Heart
  25. What are Kupffer cells?
    Macrophages in the liver
  26. What is the composition of bone?
    • 45% Ash
    • 35% Organic Matter
    • 20% Water
  27. What are osteoblasts?
    Cells that synthesize and secrete proteins to form organic matrix of bones
  28. What are osteocytes?
    • Osteoblasts entrapped within bone matrix (lacunae).
    • Revert back to osteoblasts as bone matrix dissolves.
  29. What are osteoclasts?
    Macrophages of bone tissue, responsible for resorption
  30. What are chondrocytes?
    Cells that form cartilage
  31. Define periosteum?
    Membrane that lines outer surface of bone
    • 1 & 3. Osteoblasts
    • 2. Osteocytes
    • 4. Osteoclasts
    • 5. Bone Matrix
  32. What are the functions of bones?
    • Protection of organs
    • Locomotion
    • Defense/Offense

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