There are over _______ languages spoken in the world; ____ different languages/dialects are spoken in the U.S.
True or False: By the year 2050, more than half of the US population will be made up of minorities
True or False: In all states, people of European ancestry are already the minority (i.e., California, New Mexico, Texas)
False- in some states
According to ASHA, is a social dialect of English is a communication disorder?
No. It's a legitimate variety of English that is used by it’s speakers for communication and social solidarity
True or False: According to ASHA, while a person may be speaking a dialect of English, this does preclude that person from manifesting a clinically significant communication disorder that is not related to that dialect.
False- this does NOT preclude
True or False: According to ASHA, SLPs must be able to distinguish between communication disorders and dialectal differences and be familiar with the procedures for culturally unbiased settings to make this determination
Where could we go if we needed to know where to find traits of specific dialects to know what is normal/disorder?
What are the three implications for the SLP?
First, learn as much as possible.. get involved; Wherever the SLP is employed, he or she will be part of a local and regional environment – the SLP is professionally bound to become familiar with all cultural groups and dialectal variations commonly encountered in clinical work
Second, look in manual, test group should be representative of census data; the SLP must seek standardized instruments that represent the cultural population indigenous to that environment or develop local norms that do represent regional cultures
Third, language sampling, data collection; the SLP should become familiar with nonstandardized testing tasks that can help to distinguish between disorder and a dialectal difference
What are some common errors in working with cultural language difference children?
CLD children are incorrectly identified as having a language impairment
CLD children with language impairments are missed
How can we be prepared for cultural language difference children?
• Attempt to learn the contrastive influences between other languages and dialects and Standard American English
• Remember that all children with different dialects are NOT the same.
When working with cultural language difference populations, we must become familiar with the cultures that we serve. In what ways must we do this?
• Child rearing practices
• Family structure
• Attitudes towards LI and intervention
• Communication Style – nonlinguistics and paralinguistics; pragmatics
True or False: In general, second language learning is easier than 1st language learning
False- it is more difficult
_____________________ must distinguish between those errors that reflect this difficulty and those that represent a true language impairment.
Most children learn language _____________, which may maximize the interference (the influence of one language on the learning of another) between the two languages.
part of the test (i.e., knowledge needed, normative samples- a particular group not included in the sample)
Reside within the child (i.e., sociocultural values, attitude toward testing)
When groups of minority children score similarly to the norming population, it may suggest what?
a less biased assessment (e.g., CSBS); need to be evidence-based
reflected in choice of tasks and stimulus items; for example, vocabulary- show a picture... they may not have ever seen that because of their culture
misinterpretation because the examiner isn’t familiar with the linguistic and cultural characteristics of the CLD child evaluating; need to be aware of dialectal patterns/ differences- be sensitive
Examiner Sensitivity Bias
Anticipating a certain pattern of behavior form linguistically-culturally diverse children; need to look at each patient as an individual
Examiner Expectation Bias
Drawing broad conclusions from limited test data
A test may contain English words or idioms that are unfamiliar to culturally diverse chldren
Something meaning something different than what it actually says
Figurative language; we want to keep things as literal as possible
What are some ways to avoid bias in an assessment?
• Are there other variables that might explain difficulties with English? Have to have a problem in native language to receive an IEP
• Are there similar problems exhibited in L1?
• Are the problems exhibited related to second language acquisition or dialectal differences?
• Can the problems exhibited be explained by any bias related to personnel, materials, or procedures?
• Is there any consistency to the linguistic problems exhibited that might suggest an underlying rule?
Bias can be overcome by addressing cultural and linguistic influences in a four-step process. What are the four steps?
1. Recognize and identify variables that might affect the assessment
2. Analyze tests and procedures for content and style
3. Take variables into account and change procedures
4. Teach test-taking strategies
What are some guidelines for selecting standardized tests with CLD children?
Are enough minority children includedi in the norming?
Do content areas of the test reflect child’s experiences?
Does the assessment address the child’s language and/or dialect dominance?
Are idioms used in the assessment that may hurt the child’s performance?
Is the child penalized for a particular learning or problem solving style?
What are some special assessment considerations for children with limited English proficiency?
Testing in both L1 and English are federally mandated
Use of an interpreter
Normative testing should be followed by
• Dynamic Assessment
What are some critical factors when using an interpreter?
• Selection- try to avoid family
• Relationship to the family and community
Also, make sure they know to translate as close to word for word as possible-- both what the child and SLP say
The process of language evaluation for CLD children follows the usual steps of __________, _____________, and _______________.
screening, assessment, and intervention
The SLP is interested in the child’s ability to respond to language learning opportunities and change behavior
What are some formats of dynamic assessments?
• Test-teach-retest format
• “Testing the limits” format
• Graduated prompting format
What are some other assessment ideas?
Invented rule – can the child abstract a rule and apply it to new situations?
Structured Tasks designed by the SLP
True or False: Although tests are good for assessing global change, they miss many small or subtle behaviors (e.g. daily life, vocabulary use, sentence structure, conversation skills)
True or False: Language sampling provides less specific information for planning intervention because tests give global answers; important that some portion be collected in real life situations.
False- more specific
True or False: Decisions must be made relative to the context, participants, materials, and conversational techniques to be used.
What what are we trying to figure out by collecting a representative sample?
What the child is able to do
Addressed by ensuring spontaneity and by
collecting samples under a variety of conditions.
The sampling environment can contribute to representativeness if there are a variety of ________, including various settings, tasks, partners, and topics.
What are the two aspects of context?
structure and predictability
the amount of adult manipulating.
the familiarity of the overall task and materials.
True or False: In general, children will produce a greater frequency and diversity of language
features in low structure situations and more new features in predictable
____________ provide mutually understood and conventionalized interactions.
Allows for the child's maximum participation
An attentive, responsive partner will elicit ______ language from the child.
Conversational sampling should be ________ and _________.
__________ comes from real communication contexts in which participants convey real information.
__________ sampling is concerned with the success of the child as a communicator.
True or False: Materials should be interesting, age‐appropriate, and capable of eliciting language desired.
If certain language features are desired, the SLP must _________ probability of occurrence.
Toys that encourage role play elicit more __________ or ___________.