Transportation Engineering Midterm
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What is Transportation Engineering?
Application of scientific principles to planning, design, and manage facilities for all modes of transportation to ensure safe, reliable, rapid movement of people, goods, and services.
What is Traffic Engineering?
Deals with planning, design, and management of roads, streets, highways, and relationships with other transport modes.
What is regression to the Mean?
- Is the existence of extreme values at one time followed by the opposite extreme without any change in the condition of the external factors.
- Could lead to a false positive black spot.
Describe the 4 steps to transportation planning?
- 1. Trip generation - how many trips from each TAZ
- 2. Trip distribution - How many trips from TAZ to TAZ
- 3. Travel mode - bus, vehicle, boat
- 4. Trip assignment - what route will the trip follow.
What are the 3 steps to RSIP?
- 1. Identify hazardous locations
- 2. Identify the problem at that location
- 3. remedy the problem
What are the 3 goals of TDM?
- 1. Change how we travel
- 2. Change when we travel
- 3. Reduce amount of auto travel
Examples of some TDM strategies
- - Land use planning to reduce car travel and increase walking/biking
- - increase transit appeal
- - create traffic calming measures
- - manage land use to ensure vital services are located within an acceptable walking distance
Compare elastic and inelastic demand?
Elastic demand means the resulting change in demand will be greater than the initiating percentage change in price. Elasticity depends on the price/quantity point being studied.
Compare local and arterial roads.
Arterial roads are are used for mobility and carry high volumes with multiple lanes. Local roads are used to give access to properties and are typically low volume one lane each direction.
What is consumer surplus?
The difference between what consumers pay at a given price and what some of them might be willing to pay. It is the area beneath the demand curve and the price point.
What is the difference between marginal cost and average cost?
Average cost is the cost of producing x number of vehicles divided by x number of vehicles. Marginal cost is the cost of producing x+1 more vehicles.
What is the difference between adaptation and mitigation?
- Adaptation is accepting that change in inevitable and finding ways to adapt to that reality.
- Mitigation assumes change is inevitable and finds ways to reverse the change.
What is boarding and alighting in the transit sence.
- Boarding is passengers getting on a bus.
- Alighting is passengers getting off of a bus.
Explain the concept of peak oil.
Peak oil is the idea that at some point demand will exceed supply in the non renewable resource industry. The maximum amount of production of that resource is termed peak oil.
What is Collision frequency?
The number of collisions occurring at a location during a specific time. Bias in favor of high traffic sites.
What is collision rate?
Collision frequency divided by some unit of exposure. ie million vehicle kilometers traveled. Bias in favor of low volume sites.
What is Collision severity index (CSI)?
Weighted sum of fatal, injury, and property damage only collisions at a given site. Bias towards sites with the most severe collisions.
What is a black spot?
Hazardous location that has been identified as having a collision potential that is abnormal.
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