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2013-03-03 20:17:22
Urinary System

A&P final review
Show Answers:

  1. What is regulated by the kidneys?
    • water content of the blood
    • blood pH level
    • blood ion concentration
  2. The medial surface of each kidney has a notch called the:
  3. At the beginning of the "pumping system" of the urinary system, urine leaving the renal papilla is collected in the cuplike structures called:
  4. The functional unit of the kidney is the:
  5. What is a component of the renal corpuscle?
    • glomerulus
    • Bowman's capsule
  6. What structure secretes renin when blood pressure in the afferent arteriole drops?
  7. Substances pass from the glomerulus and into the Bowman's capsule by:
  8. The juxtaglomerular cells reside in the:
    afferent arteriole
  9. The left kidney is often slightly _____ & poistioned slightly ____ than the right kidney.
  10. Blood is brought to the kidneys by the:
    renal artery
  11. Micturition =

  12. The glomerulus is the most important capillary networks for _____.
  13. Once urine enters the renal pelvis, it then travels to the:
  14. As the basic functional unit of the kidney, the nephron's function is:
    • blood processing &
    • urine formation
  15. The kidneys are covered with:
    fat pads
  16. What are the processes of urine formation?
    • filtration
    • reabsorption
    • secretion
  17. The movement of water and solutes from the plasma in the glomerulus, across the glomerular-capsular membrane, and into the capsular space of the Bowman's capsule, is termed:
  18. The movement of molecules out of the peritubular blood & into the tubule for excretion is:
  19. Under normal conditions, most water, electrolytes, and nutrients are reabsorbed in the:
    *proximal convoluted tubule
  20. What is considered a countercurrent structure?
    Henle loop
  21. Water loss from the blood is reduced by:
    • *ADH
  22. Dysuria is a term describing:
    painful urination
  23. All of the following are normal contents of urine:
    • Nitrogenous wastes
    • Hormones
    • Pigments

    NOOOO plasma proteins
  24. What is symptomatic of diabetes mellitus?
    • copious urination
    • glycosuria
    • diuresis
  25. Kidney failure means homeostatic failure, and if not relieved, inevitable ______.
  26. Postexersize proteinuria is considered _____.
  27. Fluid exiting the Henle loop becomes less concentrated with:
    • Na positive
    • Cl negative¬†¬† IONS
  28. A hydrostatic pressure gradient drives the filtration out of the plasma & into the:
  29. The efferent arteriole has a ____ diameter than the afferent arteriole.
  30. In the renal tubule, Na is reabsorbed via:
    *active transport
  31. More than 99% of filtrates must be reabsorbed from the tubular segments of the:
  32. urine backs uo into the kidneys causing swelling of the renal pelvis and calyces:
  33. kidney stones:
    Renal calculi
  34. final stage of chronic renal failure:
  35. involuntary retention of urine with subsequent distention of the bladder:
    Neurogenic bladder
  36. inflammation of the bladder:
  37. inflammation of the renal pelvis and connective tissue of the kidney:
  38. an abrupt reduction in kedney function characterized by oliguria and a sharp rise in nitorgenous compounds in the blood:
    Acute renal failure
  39. progressive condition resulting from gradual loss of nephrons:
    Chronic renal failure
  40. intense kidney pain caused by destruction of the ureters by large kidney stones:
    Renal colic
  41. most common form of kidney disease caused by a delayed immune respose to streptococcal infection:
    Acute glomerulonephritis
  42. albumin in the urine:
  43. inflammation of the urethra that commonly results from bacterial infection:
  44. What process is used by the artificial kidney to remove waste materials from the blood?
  45. Failure of the kidneys to remove wastes from the blood will result in what?
  46. Hydrogen ions are transferred from blood into the urine during what process?
  47. What condition is considered normal in an infant under 2 years of age?
  48. What step involved in urine formation allows the blood to retain most body nutrients?
  49. Voluntary control of micturition is acheived by the action of what?
    *external urethral sphincter
  50. What is the structure that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder called?
  51. Hemorrhagin causes a:
    decrease in blood pressure
  52. What are the capillary loops contained within Bowman's capsule called?
  53. The triangular divisions of the medulla of the kidney are known as:
  54. The TRIGONE is located in the:
  55. Hematuria-
    blood in the urine
  56. Anuria-
    absence of urine
  57. Nephritis-
    inflammation of the kidney
  58. Micturition-
  59. Oliguria-
    scanty amount of urine
  60. Polyuria-
    large amount of urine
  61. Incontinence-
    involuntary voiding
  62. Proteinuria-
    large amount of protein in urine
  63. Rugae-
    folds that line the bladder
  64. Urethra-
    passes through prostate gland
  65. BUN-
    *test for renal dysfunction
  66. If the Tmax for glucose in the nephron was 300 mg/100 ml and a person had a blood glucose level of 380 mg/100 ml, there would be:
    80 mg/100 ml of glucose in the urine
  67. The calyces of the kidney join together to form a large collection reservoir called the:
    renal pelvis
  68. What hormone tends to increase the amount of urine produced?
  69. What structure of the kidney narrows as it exits the kidney to become the ureter?
    *renal pelvis
  70. The movement of molecules out of the tubules and into the peritubular blood defines:
  71. The portion of the nephron that empties into a calyx is the:
    *collecting tubule
  72. One difference between the male urethra and the femal urethra is the male urethra is:
    part of 2 different body systems
  73. The mechanism for voiding begins with:
    *the relaxation of the external sphincter
  74. Substances travel from the glomerulus into Bowman capsule by the process of: