Praxis Study Cards

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Praxis Study Cards
2013-03-21 19:18:13

Study cards for the Praxis II
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  1. Curriculum, Assessment and Instruction
    • Curriculum: What is taught
    • Instruction: How it is taught
    • Assessment: Whether it was taught and how well it was learned
  2. Constructivism
    Learning evolves and becomes more complex and more complete over time as individuals build upon prior knowledge

    Piaget: Disequilibrium, equilibrium, assimilation (and accomodation)

    Learning is an individualized process; students learn different things from the same experience

    Learners must be active in the learning process
  3. Zone of Proximal Development
    Lev Vygotsky

    When children have assistance with learning, they can do more collaboratively than by themselves

    Zone of Proximal Development is the difference between what a child can do on their own and what they can do with assistance
  4. Bronfenbrenner Ecological Model

    (Microsystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, exosystem)
    The child is at the center of an integrated system that functions interactively within itself.

    Microsystem: The child, the environment and people with whom the child directly interacts with (family, school, neighborhood)

    Mesosystem: Interactions of people with each other in the child's environment that do not directly affect the child

    Ecosystem: The broader community (extended family, friends of family, social services)

    Macrosystem: The attitudes, ideologies, and customs of the culture in which the child lives
  5. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    Level 1: Basic needs; exploration, manipulation, physiological needs

    Level 2: Security, protection and safety

    Level 3: Closeness and love

    Level 4: Esteem and self-esteem

    Level 5: Self actualization 
  6. Psycho-social Theory of Development (Erikson)
    Eight stages of development. Each influences the next stage of development.

    • 1. Trust vs. mistrust
    • 2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
    • 3. Initiative vs. guilt
    • 4. Industry vs. inferiority
    • 5. Identity vs. role confusion 
    • 6. Intimacy vs. isolation
    • 7. Generativity vs. stagnation 
    • 8. Integrity vs. dispair
  7. Domains of Learning: Communication/Language Domain
    Language must become meaningful to kids.

    Skills: Using language structures, pattern combinations, gestures, facial expressions, early literacy and receptive language.

    Skills are acquired based on environment and experiences

    Kids must be exposed to activities that simulate oral language and listening in order for them to acquire reading and writing skills
  8. Domains of Learning: Cognitive Development
    Most critical because mental skills are necessary for development of all other domains

    Focuses on thinking, reasoning, problem solving, remembering, decision making, naming, recognizing, making generalizations, understanding cause and effect, analyzing perceptions (PRIMARY MENTAL SKILLS)

    Skinner: Behavioral Learning Theory, Piaget: Cognitive Development Theory
  9. Domains of Learning: Physical-Motor Domain
    First to develop as kids begin moving

    Includes gross motor, fine motor, sensory-integration and perceptual
  10. Domains of Learning: Social-Emotional Domain
    If basic needs are met, a bond forms with caregiver, which permits other social relationships to emerge and more complex emotions to evolve

    Kids gain social skills through interactive experiences which strengthens perception of self esteem, self confidence and self competence

    Establishment of effective and age appropriate environment is critical 
  11. Domains of Learning: Self-Help/Adaptive Domain
    Acquired during daily routines influenced by parent involvement

    Based on age and level of development as well as cultural mores of family

    When children master these competencies they strengthen their self esteem and develop a sense of independence 
  12. Learning Theories: Cognitive 
    Students acquire new info and skills based on prior knowledge. Instruction must be delivered at appropriate age level/stage of student and guided so students may develop an application of learned skills.

    Motivational activities to enhance and encourage learning

    Instructional Applications: Learning styles, metacognition, peer tutoring, scaffolding, behavioral temperaments 
  13. Learning Theories: Behavioral
    Learning is a function of the changes in behaviors and the responses to these events.

    Emphasizes explicit teaching and direct instruction and ABC model of instruction (A=stimulus/antecedent, B=target behavior/response, C=consequences/reinforcement)

    Focus is on measurable learning behaviors that can be observed and documented
  14. Learning Theories: Developmental
    Key concept to learning suggests that a level of maturity or readiness must be reached

    When children mature, they naturally begin to learn
  15. Learning Theories: Psychodynamic
    Human behavior and relationships are shaped by conscious and unconscious influences

    A person's personality and reactions are the result of interaction in the mind, genetic constitution, emotions and the environment

    The study of human behavior based on motivation and the functional significance of emotions
  16. Learning Theories: Sociological 
    Constructed by Bandura

    Kids learn through their observations of others

    Educators would be wise to model and demonstrate learning activities and key concepts so kids may observe what they need to learn
  17. Learning Theories: Ecological 
    Focuses on social experiences, family background, and culture that impact a student's development and future academic success

    Influences from home, school, and the community affect how well the student will achieve and academic success is related to these past and present experiences
  18. Learning Theories: Eclectic 
    The combination of various pedagogical practices better meets the academic needs of students

    Offers the ability to change the approach based on the evolving needs of students

    Professionals may select components from different theoretical approaches 
  19. Learning Theories: Multiple Intelligences Theory
    • Verbal: Ability to express orally and in writing
    • Logical: Promotes sequential/orderly instruction
    • Visual: Spatial reasoning
    • Musical: Ability to use patterns, sounds and rhythms
    • Intrapersonal: Feelings, values, and attitudes
    • Interpersonal: Interactions with other people
    • Kinesthetic: Interacting with physical environments
    • Naturalist: Skills like classification, categorization
    • Existentialist: Encompasses aesthetics, philosophy and religion, understands relationships to the world 
  20. Curriculum: Purpose
    • Should meet the needs of the learners and provide:
    • Varied opportunities to gain core knowledge
    • Assorted activities to apply knowledge
    • Methods to integrate
    • Strategies to address diverse learners
    • Activities are motivating and challenging
    • Assessments promote continued learning 
  21. Curriculum: Design
    Scope and Sequence: Outline of the topics and skills to be taught at each grade level

    • Scope: Decisions about what information and activities are significant and manageable 
    • Sequence: Decisions about what is necessary to include for the sequential development of skills and concepts of the content 
  22. Curriculum: Instructional Objectives
    Identify a learning outcome and be consistent with goals of curriculum of subject area

    Should be stated in measurable, precise terms that include (targeted audience, expected behaviors, and conditions under which the learner must demonstrated knowledge)
  23. Curriculum: Integrated Curriculum
    Builds upon knowledge across various subjects

    Allows learners to explore a common theme that incorporates more than one are of study
  24. Types of Planning: Long-range, Daily, Individual
    Long-range: Plans necessary for the year, semester, quarter or month.  Generally broken into units or themes

    Daily: Regular everyday plans used in classrooms.

    Individual: Necessary when teachers are faced with diverse student needs
  25. Instructional Design Purposes
    Identifies outcomes of instruction

    Guides development of content through a scope and sequence

    Establishes the assessment plan to gauge instructional effectiveness 
  26. Process of Designing and Preparing for Instruction
    • 1. Define instructional goals
    • 2. Perform and instructional analysis
    • 3. Distinguish present knowledge, skills, and behavior levels of students
    • 4. Identify performance objectives
    • 5. Choose instructional methods
    • 6. Gather instructional materials
    • 7. Conduct formative evaluation
    • 8. Conduct summative evaluation
  27. Instruction Principals
    High expectations, active engagement, thematic unit instruction, interactive cross-age tutors, cooperative learning activities and teacher effectiveness 
  28. Models of Instruction: Brain Based (Brooks)
    Benefits: Natural flow of learning. Promotes environment, content lessons, and student involvement as factors of learning

    Limitations: Takes time to manage and implement. Teachers should be familiar with brain research and human development including stages of learning
  29. Models of Instruction: Cognitive-Constructivist (Piaget)
    Benefits: Stimulates critical thinking skills.  Allows independent learning.

    Limitations: Requires teacher to be knowledgeable about subject and proper modeling
  30. Models of Instruction: Cooperative Learning (Johnson)
    Benefits: Easy integration of multiple intelligences, focuses on social and academic goals.  Useful for any content or subject.  Improves academic achievement.

    Limitations: Difficult for some types of students.  Additional time needed for planning/monitoring.  May need to instruct on social skills.
  31. Conceptual-Expository Learning (Ausubel)
    Benefits: Helps when presenting abstract concepts.  Emphasizes deductive reasoning. Higher level of thinking.

    Limitations: Teacher directed. Concepts may be too advanced for learners.
  32. Delineator Approach (Gregorc)
    Benefits: Teaches students using both concrete and abstract perceptual qualities. Helps students learn to create sequential order.

    Limitations: Some students may have difficulty with concrete level
  33. Direct Instruction (Hunter)
    Benefits: Improves academic achievement.  Supports learners with varied needs.  Structured for sequential learners.

    Limitations: Some teachers may not follow the steps carefully or review information or monitor students accurately 
  34. Discovery Learning (Bruner)
    Benefits: Improves learners interest/motivation.  Promotes inductive reasoning, intuitive thinking and critical thinking skills.  Allows students to be actively, independently engaged.

    Limitations: May not offer benefits to lower or higher level learners.  Questions of effect on achievement.
  35. Inquiry Learning (Inductive) (Taba)
    Benefits: Motivational and meaningful for learners. Develops problem-solving and critical-thinking skills.  Encourages use of scientific methods. Acknowledges that learning requires interaction between the learner and the data.

    Limitations: Takes more time that most models.  Limited effect on academic achievement.  Some students have problems with the step of application of information.
  36. Mastery learning (All children can learn) (Bloom)
    Benefits: Allows individual time for acquiring knowledge. Process continues after assessment.  Remediation implemented as needed.

    Limitations: Students may feel intimidated or overwhelmed by repeated concepts.  Students may be at uniquely different levels of learning.  Requires time and patience of teacher and ability to monitor all students effectively
  37. Multiple Intelligences (Gardener)
    Benefits: Addresses the various types of intelligence.  Allows students to be successful in all lessons.

    Limitations: Requires time of teacher to identify strengths of individuals.
  38. Traditional Approach
    Benefits: Follows standardized scope and sequence in textbook, written assignments and exams. Sets milestones and accomplishments. Grading rubric established.

    Limitations: Does not address individual learning styles or specific teaching style.  Promotes artificial learning of information and concepts. Teacher directed without much active learner involvement
  39. Constructivist Approach (Definition)
    Child centered approach in which a student is actively involved in directing their own learning.

    Bases learning of new concepts and delivery of information on a learners previous knowledge.

    Experiential learning that promotes a thorough understanding and application of what is learned.  
  40. Cooperative Learning (Definition)
    • Defined by Johnson and Johnson as having 5 elements.
    • 1. Positive interdependence: Success is linked to other students and their success.
    • 2. Promotive interaction: Students support one another by sharing resources, encouraging each other and solving problems together.
    • 3. Accountability: Each member of the group is responsible for learning material to help group achieve final goal.
    • 4. Interaction: Interpersonal skills must be used to be successful.
    • 5. Group Processing: Group assesses their ability to function and acquisition of knowledge  
  41. Madeline Hunter's Direct Instruction (Definition)  Also known as Explicit Instruction
    Review of previous concepts and monitoring of student learning are important

    • Elements:
    • 1. Standards-expectations objectives: Identifies what students will be able to do 
    • 2. Anticipatory set: Opening activity that prepares students for lesson
    • 3. Instruction (Input, modeling, check ofr understanding): What the teacher must do to present the lesson (deliver concepts, provide information, knowledge or develop skills)
    • 4. Guided Practice: How the teacher hwlps the students to do the work
    • 5. Closure: How the teacher helps the students to summarize new info and skills
    • 6. Independent Practice: Student opportunities to practice new learning or apply skills
  42. Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
    Observe and recall information, know dates, events and places, know major ideas/concepts, remember previous material

    Verbs: Define, list, show, describe, label, collect, observe, listen, identify, name, match, locate
  43. Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
    Understand information, interpret facts, contrast, compare, grasp the meaning of material, explain, summarize, predict outcomes and effects

    Verbs: Discuss, restate, predict, give, associate, define, explain, review, estimate, express, chart, summarize
  44. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
    Use information, ability to use methods, concepts, theories in new situations, apply rules, laws, methods and theories, solve problems using appropriate techniques

    Verbs: Apply, demonstrate, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, classify, compute, operate, use, employ, interpret
  45. Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
    Recognize patterns, organize parts, implications, identify components, conclude and clarify

    Verbs: Analyze, order, connect, arrange, infer, compare, explain, distinguish, sort, test, criticize, calculate
  46. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
    Arrange things in a new way, generalize from given facts, relate knowledge from various areas, predict and draw conclusions

    Verbs: Compile, combine, create, design, invent, compose, produce, collect, manage, assemble, develop, formulate 
  47. Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
    Assess the validity and value of ideas/theories, make choices based upon reasoning and valid arguments, verify the value of data and evidence, recognize bias and subjectivity

    Verbs: Evaluate, value, measure, decide, justify, criticize, contrast, debate, support, rank, convince, select
  48. Differentiated Instruction
    Used to ensure that all students will acquire information and learn regardless of their individual abilities

    Focuses on various learning styles of all students to ensure that instruction is appropriate 

    Teachers vary content offered, process of presentation, end product and instruction
  49. Guided Instruction 
    Combination of teacher-centered and student-centered approaches 

    Teachers can guide the direction of the instruction (facilitating the learning process) and students are provided with time for practice and application of what is learned.
  50. Instructional Formats
    • Co-Teaching: When tow teachers actively share the teaching of all students 
    • Peer tutoring: When educators employ strategies that include same age and cross age peers to tutor other students
    • Collaboration: When teachers with diverse expertise work together to enhance the education of students
    • Cooperative learning: When educators implement classroom situations that promote learning among students through cooperation, not competition 
  51. Developmentally Appropriate Practices
    • Consider the level at which a student is presently functioning and developing instructional activities.
    • Teachers take into account various stages of human development and follow the ability levels of the students 
  52. Integration Strategies
    • Strategic instruction:
    • Design offers opportunities to integrate several big ideas
    • Content learned must be applicable to multiple contexts
    • Complex concepts and facts should be integrated once mastered
  53. Scaffolded Instruction
    Provides temporary support or guidance to the learner who is not ready to perform a task independently 

    Initially reduces the task complexity by structuring it into manageable chunks to increase successful task completion

    Allows needed support in the beginning, then gradually decreases the teacher participation as the student becomes more competent and ends with independent practices as the student masters the skill

    An example is Reciprocal Teaching 
  54. Types of Scaffolded Instruction
    Verbal Instruction: The teacher uses prompting, questioning and further explanations to encourage students to move to higher levels.

    • Procedural Instruction: Specific instructional techniques such as:
    •      Instructional Framework: Specific teaching, modeling and practice of the skill with others as well as expectations for independent application
    •      One-on-one teaching and modeling
    •      small group instruction in which a more experience student practices or models a newly learned skill with a less experienced one
    •      Grouping or partnering in which teachers place students who are more experienced in a topic with those who are less experienced
  55. Cooperative Learning (Pairing Strategies)
    Think-Pair-Share: Teacher poses a question or topic to the students and allows them time to think before discussion; partners talk about the question or topic and then share their answers and discussions with the class

    Round Robin Recall: Students are divided into small groups and each member must recall all they know about a topic or subject presented in a set amount of time
  56. Questioning Strategies
    Begin at knowledge level move to evaluation level

    • Knowledge: Define the . . . 
    • Application: How would you use the . . . 
    • Evaluation: Decide which method . . . and compare . . . 
  57. Content Enhancements
    Allows teachers to use various techniques that enhance more complex information in the curriculum so students may remember and utilize it more efficiently 
  58. Extrinsic Motivators 
    The motivating factor is an external reward that can provide satisfaction that the completion of the task or activity may not provide to the student
  59. Intrinsic Motivators
    Those that come from within the individual.  Students do not need to receive anything for their efforts as they have their own drive or internal need to be successful
  60. Classroom Management Styles 
    Authoritarian: Restrictive and punitive with the main focus on maintaining order instead of emphasizing instruction and educational activities

    Authoritative: Encourages students to become independent under an effective management program with guidelines, expectations and verbal support appropriate for the learners

    Permissive: Promotes independence of learners, but offers them limited support for academic skills or managing their behaviors
  61. Classroom Management Models
    • Glasser Model (Glasser): When an individual makes good choices, good behavior results. Implement consequences for good and bad behavior. Establish class-wide discipline.
    • With-It-Ness (Kounin): Teacher is able to manage the learners as he is with it and alert to the group. Address all off-task behaviors. Use effective instructional pace. Instill motivation
    • Kyle, Kagan and Scott Approach: Utilizes win-win disciple with three pillars (no adversaries, shared responsibility, long-term learned behavior).  Identify disruptive behaviors and create structures. Incorporate win-win solutions for preventative results.
    • Canter Model (Canter): Educator is in charge of the class and manages learners. Expectations are stated clearly and concisely. Desired behaviors are insisted upon.  Educator is calm but firm.
    • Fred Jones Model: Learner motivation and desired behaviors are stressed. Non-verbal actions are used to prevent undesirable behaviors. Classroom structure and rules are identified early.
    • Neo-Skinnerian Model (Skinner): The desired behavior can be obtained by shaping and modeling.  Behavior is shaped and implementing consequences and rewards.  Consistency is the key.   
  62. Teaching Styles
    • Expert: Possesses knowledge of subject and challenges students' competence and skill development in the content
    • Formal Authority: Prefers standard and acceptable procedures, clear expectations and structure; often rigid and non-flexible
    • Personal Model: Leads by example, models, guides and directs students. Considers various learning styles.
    • Facilitator: Promotes independence, initiative and responsibility; consults, supports and encourages students
    • Delegator: Encourages autonomy in learners and is available as a consultative resource.
  63. 3 Factors That Predict Reading Achievement 
    • The ability to recognize and name letters of the alphabet
    • Basic general knowledge about print
    • The awareness of phonemes
  64. Language Acquisition
    • Depends on background, experience and exposure
    • Linguistic Awareness: Ability to understand the sound structure of language
    • Young children need to hear how language is separated into different parts
    • They must learn to recognize rhyme, match words by sound and begin to understand syllables  
  65. Activities to Gain Language Knowledge
    Play games with sounds, use clapping to emphasize syllable breaks, sing songs with rhymes and rhythms, recite poems with alliteration passages, read stories with predictable sound patterns, utilize jokes and silly riddles for verbal play, use pictures in books and encourage oral language
  66. Print Knowledge 
    Children must understand that letters become words, words become sentences and sentences have meaning.
  67. Activities to Gain Print Knowledge
    Reading aloud and having children talk about the story, providing a special are for children to look at reading materials independently, environmental print, playing alphabet and word games
  68. Reading
    • Purpose of teaching reading: Gain information from text, improve communications, increase pleasure
    • Decoding Skills: Understanding that letters in text represent the sounds in speech. 
    • Some students may struggle with reading because they lack phonological processing skills or have not received adequate instruction
  69. Reading Curriculum
    Phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, reading, fluency, grammar, writing and reading comprehension strategies
  70. Literature
    • Reading various types of literary works allows students to learn to analyze and interpret the message delivered by the author
    • Students should be taught the components and types of literature available 
  71. Narrative
    • Piece of literature that tells and story and incorporates the elements of sequential events, time, characters, and plot to deliver a description to the reader
    • Use in the classroom helps students toward developing writing skills
    • Include new vocabulary, descriptive words and phrases, and realistic views of people and environment
    • Incorporate with writing in journals, creating personal stories, improving oral and written vocabulary, and comparing format to other types of literature
  72. Poetry
    • Instruction should focus on an understanding of literal and figurative meanings of words and the instruction of metaphors, similes, and patterns of language
    • Should also study structural elements such as assonance, alliteration, rhyme and rhythm 
  73. Writing
    • Goes hand in hand with reading
    • Often taught simultaneously with increased skill development as children mature
    • Reading and writing are necessary for all content areas
    • Teachers often use writers workshop to teach the stages of writing and help children master the skills
  74. Spelling
    • Precommunicative: Uses symbols from the alphabet but no knowledge of letter-sound correspondence
    • Semiphonetic: Begins to understand letter-sound correspondence
    • Phonetic: Uses a letter or groups for every speech sound heard and may not conform to the conventional spelling
    • Transitional: Understands the conventional alternative for sounds and structure of words
    • Correct: Knows the orthographic system and the basic rules, making generalizations
    • Invented spelling: A student's attempts to use their personal judgement or guesses about how a word is spelled.
    • Correct spelling: Students apply spelling principles appropriately 
  75. Critical Skills for Learning to Read and Write
    • Print Knowledge: Understanding of print letters, words and books
    • Emergent Writing: Using print in meaningful ways
    • Linguistic Awareness: Comprehending language use 
  76. Print Awareness (Vocabulary)
    • Phonemic Awareness: Be aware that sounds are represented in printed words
    • Word Recognition: Identify words in print
    • Phonics: Decode the sounds of familiar and unfamiliar words
    • Comprehension: Construct understanding from the words
    • Fluency: Coordinate the words and meaning so the reading becomes automatic
  77. Reading Approaches: Whole Language
    • Meaningful context: Reading materials are based on content and information that has meaning for the student group
    • Acceptance of all learners: Teachers work with students to create and environment and the instructional activities
    • Flexible structure: Allow ample time to engage students in meaningful projects  and lessons where they are responsible for their learning
    • Supportive classroom: Teachers expect students to cooperate and interact to enhance learning
    • Integrated approach: Other subject areas in thematic units and lessons are included 
    • Focused expectations: Teachers provide whole texts and encourage reading and writing at a higher level
    • Context skill development: As students read and write, teachers interject skills in spelling, grammar, reading, and writing
    • Collaboration and scaffolding: Teachers provide ongoing support to students and work together to meet student needs 
    • Authentic Assessments: Regular diagnostics, based on student work, are integrated across the curriculum
  78. Reading Approaches: Phonics Instruction
    • Explicit instruction in phonemic awareness and functional phonics is necessary
    • Phonics instruction may be best suited to use in context
    • Children learn phonics when they address reading and writing activities
    • Analogy-Based phonics: Students use parts of words they have learned to attack words that are unfamiliar
    • Analytic phonics: Students analyze letter sound relationships from learned words to those not familiar while not pronouncing sounds in isolation
    • Embedded phonics: Use of explicit instruction for using letter-sound relationships during the reading of connecting text as a way to sight read new words
    • Intrinsic Phonics: Taught gradually in the context of meaningful reading
    • Onset-rime phonics: Instruction of separating onsets and rimes in words so students ma read them and then blend parts into the word
    • Phonics and spelling: A method of teaching children to segment words into phonemes and creating words by writing letters for the phonemes
    • Synthetic phonics: The method of teaching students to convert letters or combinations of letters into sound sequences and blend the sounds to form words 
  79. Reading Approach: Basal Reading Approach
    • Students are taught through a program that uses readers, manuals, workbooks, flashcards, and tests.
    • Can be either meaning-emphasis or code-emphasis
  80. Reading Approach: Literature-Based Reading Approach
    • Teacher reads aloud to the class
    • Student oral reading periods
    • shared reading activities
    • Sustained silent reading blocks 
  81. Reading Approach: Linguistic Approach
    • Focuses on mastery of words rather than using isolated sound.
    • Materials lack pictures
    • Limits oral language development
  82. Reading Approach: Language Experience Approach
    • Integrates the development of reading skills with listening, speaking and writing.
    • Students dictate stories to the teacher and they become the basis for students' first reading experiences 
    • Looks at writing as a secondary system derived from oral language
  83. Reading Approach: Individualized Reading Approach
    • Students are allowed to choose the reading selections and work at their own rate on improving reading skills and comprehension 
    • Teacher completes diagnostics, meets with students individually to listen to their oral reading, and evaluation their comprehension
  84. Process-based Writing Instruction
    • Model trait or strategy
    • use guided practice with the trait or strategy
    • Allow individual practice of the trait or strategy
    • Promote application of the trait or strategy
  85. Six Traits Approach
    • Ideas: The message that presents the purpose, includes the theme, main idea, and the details to engage the reader and deliver understanding
    • Organization: Constructing the piece into the proper format, using a beginning, a middle, and an end to pursue the purpose
    • Voice: The personal and unique style of the writer that provides the reader a connection and an interest in the piece
    • Word Choice: The use of words, phrases and language selected by the writer to create the appropriate meaning
    • Sentence fluency: The manner in which the writer composes the sentences and paragraphs to give flow to the piece that is rhythmic and easy to read
    • Conventions: The grammar, spelling, punctuation and word use that is considered when the piece is edited to support its meaning and purpose
  86. Reading Aloud
    • Have profound effect on children and their success in reading
    • Promotes language acquisition
    • Improves oral vocabulary and usage
    • Increases reading comprehension skills
    • Critically important activity for parents and caregivers 
  87. Five Levels of Phonological Awareness
    • 1. Rhyming and alliteration
    • 2. Sentence segmentation
    • 3. Syllable blending and segmentation
    • 4. Onset rime, blending and segmentation
    • 5. Phoneme blending and segmenting words into phonemes 
  88. Steps of Monitoring Achievement in Reading
    • 1. Pre-reading: Prior to instruction of new skills, check for independence, use of vocabulary, and application of background information to discover the areas that need further attention
    • 2. Reading: As students are involved in the learning process and are working on gaining and practicing skills, teachers can monitor skill development through ongoing classroom assessments.  Often completed through use of authentic and informal evaluation measures
    • 3. Post-reading: After a certain set of skills have been taught and students have been exposed to practice and application opportunities, teachers will want to identify the level of mastery of the skills and focus on addressing problematic areas that appear 
  89. Reading and Language Arts Assessments 
    • Standardized Reading Test: Imposed time limits. Evaluate word recognition, vocabulary and comprehension. Do not have direct relevance to improving instruction.
    • Portfolios: Collection of student samples of work in one or more areas to demonstrate student achievement. Useful in monitoring writing progress.
    • Profile: Does not include samples of work, but is a collection of ratings or descriptions about the student.  Provides info about what a student can do in various areas.
    • Performance Task: A task, a problem or a question that requires students to construct responses using strategies, organize data, formulate and generalize, justify answers through writings.
    • Anecdotal Records: Descriptions of meaningful events observed by the teacher are collected as notes so the teacher may interpret information in order to modify and adjust instruction for individual students. Particularly useful to educators in observing reading and writing skills for future academic planning.
  90. Six Principals of Mathematics
    • Equity: Focuses on expectations and support for students
    • Curriculum: Emphasizes appropriate activities and concepts aligned with standards and articulated by grades
    • Teaching: Educators must be knowledgeable about math concepts and principals so they may engage the learners
    • Learning: Encourages students to gain math understandings and build upon prior knowledge 
    • Assessment: Evaluations of the learner and the program are instrumental in mathematics education
    • Technology: This are impacts math in numerous ways and should influence what and how it is taught
  91. Types of Number Relationships
    • Spatial: Recognizes sets of objects in number patterns and figuring out how many exist without counting 
    • One and two more, one and two less: Comprehending the relationship of one number position to another
    • Anchors: Discovering how the combinations of numbers are related to each other
    • Part-part-whole: Establishes that two parts consist of a whole
  92. Activities That Help In the Study of Number Relationships 
    • Pre-place-value: Connects the ideas of sets
    • More and less: Promotes understanding of numbers
    • Doubling or near doubling: Learning larger numbers may be easier if students understand that doubles make another larger number, while near doubling is a double and one more
  93. Estimation
    • Goal is for students to learn how to approximate an answer appropriate to the situation they are faced with
    • Instruction should include different types of manipulatives and various estimation strategies 
  94. Addition Strategies
    • One-More-Than and Two-More-Than Facts: Requires that the student count from a specified number 
    • Zero Facts: Students must learn not to count on when using zero and that zero does not add another number, but holds a place 
    • Doubles: Ten of the basic facts are doubles
    • Near-Doubles: Concept of doubles plus one in which learners round the smallest addend and then add one more
    • Make Ten Facts: When one of the addends is 8 or 9, then part of the other addend is added to make 10 and the remaining is added for the total 
  95. Subtraction Strategies
    • Subtraction as Think-Addition: Focuses and builds upon the part-part-whole relationship
    • Subtraction Facts with Sums to 10: Basic addition facts must be first mastered, as learners must use fact families to learn subtraction
    • Sums Greater Than 10: Builds upon the relationship of addition and subtraction up to 10 and back down to 10 or extensions of the think-addition method
  96. Steps to Attack Story Problems
    • 1. Understand the problem
    • 2. Determine the essential information
    • 3. Make a plan to solve the problem
    • 4. Follow the plan
    • 5. Check the answer to be sure it makes sense
  97. Multiplication Strategies
    • Doubles: Equivalent to doubles in addition problems
    • Fives Facts: Builds on counting by 5 concept
    • Zeroes and Ones: Generalizations that when one factor is zero then the answer is 0 and when one factor is 1, the answer is the other number
    • Nifty Nines: The basic math facts that have a factor of 9 and students use the pattern 
  98. Types of Manipulatives to Teach Fractions
    • Region/area: These help students to visualize  fraction problems where the surface area may be divided into smaller parts
    • Length: These may model a fraction situation in which divided a line may be necessary (fraction strips, number lines, cuisenaire rods)
    • Set: These are related to a group of objects considered whole and dividing a set creates fractional parts (beans, small counters, toys)
  99. van Hiele Levels
    • Visualizations: Identify shapes and their names according to the characteristics, and categorizes them
    • Analysis: Learn the classifications of shapes and their similar properties
    • Informal Deduction: Learn the properties of shapes and their relationships 
    • Deduction: Learners understand the theorems and axioms of  shapes
    • Rigor: Understand axiom systems
  100. Measurement
    • Understand the attributes to be measured
    • Realize the comparison of the attributes is a measure
    • Acknowledge the types and use of measurement tools
  101. Standards of Assessment in Math
    • 1. Reflect the mathematics that all students need to know and be able to do
    • 2. Enhance mathematics learning
    • 3. Promote equity
    • 4. Be an open process
    • 5. Promote valid inferences about mathematics learning
    • 6. Be a coherent process
  102. Assessment Types in Mathematics
    Observations, anecdotal notes, performance assessments, alternate assessments, portfolios
  103. Essential Outcomes of Social Studies Education
    • Classify information
    • Interpret information
    • Analyze information
    • Summarize information
    • Synthesize information
    • Evaluate information
  104. Ways to encourage citizenship 
    School service projects, develop a class newsletter, classroom management system, individual service projects, read about/discuss public issues, visit government agencies, practice voting, school councils or government
  105. Transmission (Model of Citizenship Education)
    • The learning of government function and following the rules set forth.
    • Legalistic: Focuses on following the laws explicitly and acknowledging the rights and responsibilities 
    • Assimilationist: Promotes the values of society
  106. Transformation (Model of Citizenship Education)
    • The analysis of information, the formation of opinions and the actions taken
    • Critical Thinking: Encourages open-minded thoughts, views and values, and questions authority
    • Cultural Pluralism: Provides students with a range of values and ideals and provides information about diversity and other governments
  107. Anthropology Key Points
    • Avoid stereotypical content
    • Specify historical periods
    • Use a variety of resources
    • Include diverse information
  108. Sociology Key Points
    • Focus on group membership
    • Involve community studies
    • Identify social problems 
    • Investigate communication
  109. Psychology Key Points
    • Observe people
    • Identify and compare groups of people
    • Research human emotions
    • Study human development
  110. Economics Key Skills
    • Describe economic problems, alternatives, benefits and costs
    • Examine economic situations
    • Identify the consequences of changes in economic policies
    • Analyze economic evidence
    • Compare benefits and costs
  111. Political Science Key Skills
    • What the government is and how governments  function
    • How rules are made and enforced
    • How rules affect family, community, local, state, national and international places
    • Why government is necessary and how power and authority is utilized
    • The democratic values and beliefs of civic life
  112. Curriculum Focus by Grade
    • K-2: Families and schools
    • 3: Cities
    • 4: State
    • 5: Federal government
    • 6: Ancient and foreign governments
  113. Citizenship Key Skills
    • How government works, so they can follow rules
    • Ways to change society for the better
    • Value-based decision making
    • Analyze social settings and conditions
    • Define key political issues and to develop personal perspectives
    • Forms of civic participation
  114. Geography Key Skills
    • Map skills and spatial organization of the world
    • The places and regions of the world
    • The physical and human systems
    • The environment and society
    • The uses of geography
  115. Three Stages of Map Reading Skill Development
    • Topographical Stage: The ability to understand different areas, but no specific place
    • Projective Stage: The ability to locate an object or place in relation to self
    • Euclidian Stage: The ability to use strong spatial relationship skills
  116. Instructional Strategies for Social Studies
    • Utilize primary sources
    • Incorporate fiction 
    • Use of timelines
  117. Instructional Cycle for Science Instruction
    • Discrepant Event: An unusual phenomenon is demonstrated or described to students.  Aids in developing hypothesis and experimental design
    • Question: A question that integrates the variable for the selected investigation
    • Inquiry: Question, hypothesis, variables, controls, collect data, organize and correlate data, mathematical applications, conclusions
  118. Methods of Instructional Delivery in Science
    • Demonstration: Provides young students with models or visual examples of the information.
    • Lecture: Imparts information to the students.  Not generally recommended for elementary students
    • Inquiry-based: The process of learning is given to the students. Used for experimental investigations
    • Cooperative learning
    • Small group instruction and presentations
    • Whole group discussions
    • Laboratory-Experimentation: Large group and everyone does that same experiment
    • Research Projects
    • Literature review: Students use resources besides the textbook
  119. Health Education Focus 
    • Behaviors and conditions that ensure proper health, reducing at risk behaviors
    • Instilling skills to use the behaviors or establish the conditions in personal lives
    • Teaching attitudes, values, and knowledge of the behaviors and conditions
    • Providing opportunities to practice and acquire the skills
  120. Levels of Developmentally Appropriate Activities for PE
    • Level 1: Involves large muscle skill development and movement. Has little formation organization.  Includes lifestyle activities
    • Level 2: Is aerobic and includes basic skills. Includes recreation activities and formal sports. Considered cardiovascular activities.
    • Level 3: Reinforces concepts of muscular strength and flexibility. Improves development of specific skill exercises
    • Level 4: Considered "quiet time". Includes rest and inactivity 
  121. Locomotor Skills
    Walking, running, hopping, leaping, sliding, galloping, skipping
  122. Body Management
    Spatial awareness, concept of direction, concepts of levels, pathways, extensions in space