Adjustment Disorder & Personality Disorders
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Is characterized by the developement of emotional or behavioral symptoms, whithin 3 months of a stressor or stressors, which result in distress or impaired functioning. No medications are generally appropriate. Psychotherapy is treatment of choice. The goal is to provide the individual with new coping skills, learning better ways of dealing with stress and a broader of understanding of personal issues.
An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the indivdual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment.
Paranoid Personality Disorder?
Is characterized by general distrust/suspiciousness of others and is more common males.
Schizoid Personality Disorder?
Is characterized by restricted range of emotions and a pattern of detachement from others (eg. emotional detachement, coldness, or flat affect). Individual are not likely to seek treatment unless there is signifcant stress or pressure.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder?
A pattern of deficits in interpersonal skills and a decreased capacity for close relationship. Cognitive and perceptual distortions and eccentric behavior are also evident. (eg. absence of friends and confidants with possible exception of close relatives. In the absence of psychosis, medication is not indicated. Best treated with some form of psychotherapy. Goal in the treatment should focus on illogical thinking and odd emotional reactions, the reaction of others to their strange behavior and confrontation of tangential or superstitious thinking.
Antisocial Personality Disorder?
a pattern of disregard for or violation of others' right evident since at least age 15 and the individual is at least 18 years of age. If the individual's behavior is consistent with this diagnosis but he or she is younger than 18, the diagnosis of conduct disorder should be used. This disorder is more common in males. No Medication.
Borderline Personality Disorder?
Instability in relationships, self-image and affect, as well as impulsive behavior. It is more common in females. (eg. frantic efforts to avoid abandonment). Antipsychotic Meds may be helpful during brief reactive psychotic symptoms. Dialectical Behavior Therapy is commonly used in treatment.
Historonic Personality Disorder?
highly emotionality and attention seeking behavior. It is more common in females. (eg. discomfort when he or she is not the focus of attention, use physical appearance to attract others' attention). Medicatons are not indicated unless there is an Axis I disgnosis. Individuals with Histrionic Personality disorder are emotionally needy and are often reluctant to terminate therapy.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder?
Is characterized by grandiosity, a need to be admired by others, and an absence of empathy. It is more common in males. Common symptoms include: an exaggerated sense of importance, perception of being special, sense of entitlement, and arrogance. Meds are not indicated unless there is an Axis I disorder. In therapy manipulative behaviors that demean and devalue others, lack of empathy and self-centeredness relate to the primary goals of treatment.
Aviodant Personality Disorder?
Is characterized by social inhibition, low self-esteem and excessive senitivity to criticism. (eg. avoidance of interpersonal relationships because of oversenitivity to rejection, disapproval, or crisitism. avoidance of new activities or taking risk because of fear of embarrassment). Medications should only be prescribed for specific Axis I disorders. Individual therapy is the preferred modality although group therapy can be effective if the individual agrees to atten enough sessions.
Dependent Personality Disorder?
Is characterized by an extreme need to be taken care of which leads to submissive behavior and cliniginess as well as fears of separation. It is more common in females. Common symptoms include the following: an excessive need for advice and reassurance when faced with decisions, discomfort with being alone because of fear of not being able to care for oneself. Meds should be only be prescribed for specific Axis I disorders and with caution. Sedative drug abuse and overdose are common in individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder. The most effective treatment focuses on solutions and specific life problems the individual is presently experiencing.
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder?
Is characterized by perfectionism, preoccupation with orderliness and considerable effort to control self and others, resulting in reducing flexibiity, openness and efficiency. This is more common in males. Common symptoms include the following: preoccipation with rules, details, list, inability to let go of worthless or worn-out item, and reluctance to delegate or work with others. Medications are not indicated unless the individual is also suffering from an Axis I disorder. Individuals with OCPD will seek treatment when life has become overwhelming to their existing coping skills. Individuals are often not in touch with their feeling states as much as their thoughts.
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