A&P Ch 1

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stef1208
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20477
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A&P Ch 1
Updated:
2010-05-26 22:16:14
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anatomy physiology
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A&P Chapter 1 - The Human Body: An Orientation
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  1. Studies the structure (form) of body parts and their relationships to one another.
    Anatomy
  2. Concerns the function of the body and how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.
    Physiology
  3. Study of the cells of the body.
    Cytology
  4. Study of the tissues of the body.
    Histology
  5. Organ systems
    • Integumentary (skin)
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Endocrine
    • Nervous
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive (male and female)
  6. Properties of life
    • Boundary maintenance
    • Movement
    • Responsiveness
    • Digestion
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
    • Reproduction
    • Growth
  7. Survival needs
    • Nutrients
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Temperature
    • Atmospheric pressure
  8. Coined homeostasis
    Cannon (1900s)
  9. Recognized that there were stable internal conditions regardless of external conditions
    Bernard (1800s)
  10. Components of homeostatic control mechanisms
    • Receptor
    • Integrator
    • Effector
  11. Negates or reverses direction of change
    Negative feedback
  12. Amplifies change
    Positive feedback
  13. Main body cavities
    • Ventral (viscera, guts):
    • -Thoracic (heart, lungs)
    • -Abdominal (small intestine, stomach)
    • -Pelvic (urinary bladder, reproductive organs)

    Dorsal (central nervous system; brain, spinal cord)
  14. Father of Medicine
    Hippocrates (Hippocratic Oath, there is a reason people get sick, not gods' fault)
  15. Hippocratic Oath
    "do no harm" "no further harm"
  16. What is the key to science?
    observation
  17. Who fathered "physiologie" and theorized that disease came from natural causes?
    Aristotle
  18. Wrote the first medical text; believed in questioning authority.
    Galen
  19. Muslim that also wrote medical text.
    Avicenna
  20. Published accurate gross anatomy atlas.
    Vesalius
  21. Realized blood flows out from heart and back in.
    Harvey
  22. What allows science to progress and detects outside human limitations?
    Technology
  23. Looked at lake water through microscope.
    Leeuwenhoek
  24. Invented first simple microscope
    Leeuwenhoek
  25. Coined the term "cells"
    Hooke
  26. Improved the microscope.
    Hooke and Zeiss
  27. Term for monastery cubicles
    "cellulae"
  28. New habits of reasoning and logic; noticed things and began inferring (2 people)
    Bacon (inductive) & Descartes (deductive)
  29. In science, ___ and ___ are tentative.
    proof & truth
  30. Science produces ___, ___, and ___ information about nature.
    reliable, objective, and testable
  31. What does it mean when something is "reliable"?
    You can count on it.
  32. What does it mean when something is "objective"?
    There is a removal of bias.
  33. What does it mean when something is "testable"?
    Something can be quantified, measured.
  34. McLean vs. Arkansas Board of Ed; schools now teach that science is...
    • 1. Guided by natural law
    • 2. Explanatory by reference to natural law
    • 3. Tested against the observable world
    • 4. Conclusions are tentative (not the final word)
    • 5. Falsifiable
  35. Forming a ___ is central to science.
    Hypothesis
  36. What does it mean when something is "falsifiable"?
    If it is false, then this can be shown by observation or experiment.
  37. How much you can infer to the general public
    Statistical testing
  38. High formation of multiple facts.
    Laws
  39. Highest form of understanding and explanation.
    Theory
  40. Two members of the same ___ can procreate with each other.
    Species
  41. Change in genetic composition; unifies many observations
    Natural selection
  42. Involves genetic fitness
    Adaptation
  43. A change over time.
    Evolution
  44. How old is the earth?
    4.6-4.7 billion years old
  45. A good hypothesis is both ___ and ___.
    consistent and testable

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