Governance Chapter 12

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Governance Chapter 12
2013-03-03 22:47:16
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 terms
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  1. political party
    An organized effort by office holders, candidates, activists, and voters to pursue their common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process.
  2. political machine
    A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity.
  3. candidate-centered politics
    Politics that focuses on the candidates, their particular issues, and character rather than party affiliation.
  4. party realignment
    Dramatic shifts in partisan preferences that drastically alter the political landscape.
  5. critical election
    An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues and personalities.
  6. secular realignment
    The gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system.
  7. national convention
    A party meeting held in the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential ticket and adopting a platform.
  8. superdelegate
    Delegate to the Democratic Party's national convention that is reserved for a party official and whose vote at the convention is unpledged to a candidate.
  9. think tank
    Institutional collection of policy-oriented researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas.
  10. national party platform
    A statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention.
  11. party identification
    A citizen's personal affinity for a political party, usually expressed by a tendency to vote for the candidates of that party.
  12. proportional representation
    A voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular political party.
  13. winner-take-all system
    An electoral system in which the party that receives at least one more vote than any other party wins the election.
  14. dealignment
    A general decline in party identification and loyalty in the electorate.