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What kind of tissue is blood considered?
What three things do connective tissue contain?
In the case of blood what are they?
extracellular fibers-plasma proteins
Blood is the only what in the body?
The only liquid tissue
Avg amount of blood in man? in woman?
4-5 L in woman
5-6 L in man
Blood makes up how much of total body wt?
Blood pH must be maintained within narrow limits. What are they ?
What happens if blood falls below a certain pH?
Blood becomes acidic
below 7.3-get sick-acidosis
below 7.0-nerves cannot fire results in coma and death
What happens if blood rises above a certain pH?
Blood becomes alkaline
if it rises above 7.5 get sick0-alkalosis
if it rises above 8.0 nerves cannot STOP firing results in convulsions leads to rigor and then death
What are many poisons considered(pH wise)?
Many poisons are alkaloids
Name the 3 functions of blood
What are three ways the blood functions in "transportation" ?
-carries o2 and nutrients to body cells
-carries co2 and wastes to liver/kidneys/lungs
-carries hormones to target tissues
In what way does blood act in regulation of body temp?
-carries heat generated by muscles to other areas of the body.
-carries heat to skin so as to dissepate it.
What three ways does blood act in "regulation"?
- -body temp
- -fluid and electrolyte balance
- -pH- regulates buffer system
What three ways does the blood act in "protection"?
State the composition of blood
- Mostly liquid
- 55% plasma and 45% formed elements
State the composition of blood plasma
90% H2O and 10% solutes
Name the three plasma proteins.
State the composition
Which is the most abundant?
Albumins -60% MOST abundant Plasma protein
What are albumins?
Blood solute and most abundant plasma protein
smallest plasma protein(in size)
regulate osmotic pressure (fluid volume)
What are globulins?
blood solute and plasma protein
include alpha and beta(transport lipids withing blood) as well and gamma cells (immunity)
What are fibrinogens?
blood solute and plasma protein
LARGEST protein (in size)
involved in blood clotting
Name the non protein molecules in blood
-nitrogen molecules which include amino acids,urea,uric acid
Name the nutrient molecules in blood
- amino acids
- fatty acids
Name the gases that are in blood and their compositions
N2- no function and can cause "the bends" in scuba divers
What can an abundance of N2 in blood cause?
the bends in SCUBA divers
What is an electrolyte? Is it present in blood?
Electrolyte breaks apart in solute to form ions (charged particles)
Yes they are present in the forms of salts, acids, and bases
Three formed elements in blood tissue
What is hematopoiesis?
When and where does it occur?
production of formed elements (RBC's, WBC's and platelets)
Only occurs in RED bone marrow after birth
What is a hemocytoblast?
- STEM cell in red bone marrow that produces ALL three types of formed elements (RBC,WBC,PLATELETS)
What are Erythrocytes?
Very small 7.5 mm3
How large is mm3
1/100 of a ml
What shape is an erythrocyte? Why?
RBC's are a biconcave disc
perfect design b/c it allows absolute maxsurface area for the volume
What is the approx number of RBC's per mm3?
What happens to a nucleus in a mature RBC?
It disintegrates and the RBC becomes a lean,mean O2 carrying machine
What is a Reticulocyte?
immature RBC that still has it's nucleus
How long is the lifespan of an RBC without its nucleus?
only about 120 days
What is the replacement rate of RBC's?
2 million RBC's destroyed and replaced every second
What are the primary functions of RBC's?
to carry O2 and CO2
What is a Hemoglobin? Describe the parts and what each does?
- blood protein that carries O2 and CO22 parts to Hemoglobin molecule
- -heme-pigment containing iron-carries O2
- -globin-protein part-carries CO2
What is the composition of CO2 and O2 in blood?
CO2 is 23% in blood
O2 is 97% in blood
WHY are hemoglobin molecules SO effecient at carrying CO2 and O2?
CO2 and O2 bond to different parts of the hemglobin molecules they are NEVER competing with each other to make that bond.
What is anemia?
- low RBC count
- There are many diff types of anemia.
What are leukocytes?
Where are Leukocytes located?
Small fraction in our blood, vast majority are in tissue spaces and lymphatic organs
What are two main catagories of WBC's?
granulocytes and agranulocytes