nervous system

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nervous system
2013-03-29 00:30:41
nervous system

lecture test 2
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  1. function of the nervous system
    controls the co-ordination of the body's organ systems, in close cooperation with the endocrine system.

    (together nervous and endocrine maintain homeostasis)
  2. 3 basic functions of nervous system
    • sensory functions (externally)
    • integrating functions (within spinal cord)
    • motor functions (externally)
  3. parts of the nervous system
    • central nervous system
    • peripheral nervous system
  4. central nervous system
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  5. peripheral nervous system
    • cranial nerves
    • spinal nerves
    • autonomic nerves
    •   -sympathetic
    •   -parasympathetic
  6. involved in transmission of impulses over long distances

    (long, thin cells with branching processes at the ends, where they connect with other neurons)
  7. 3 parts of neurons
    • cell body/soma/perikaryon
    • dendrites
    • axons
  8. cell body
    • contains nucleus of cell
    • contains majority of cell organelles that synthesize 
  9. synthesized by ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum
  10. "energy"
  11. nissl bodies
    • areas containing large amounts of rough ER and ribosomes 
    • stain darkly
    • give grey coloration to the areas of the spinal cord that contain cell bodies of the neurons 
  12. grey matter
    nissl bodies
  13. dendrites
    extensions from cell body that receive stimuli/impulses from other neurons and convey this stimulation to the cell body.

    may be modified into sensory receptors to receive or "sense" stimuli such as heat, cold, touch, pressure, stretch, or other physical changes from inside or outside the body.
  14. axons
    • conducts impulses away from the cell body toward another neuron or other type of cell
    • often covered in fatty substance called myelin
  15. myelin
    • fatty substance
    • under microscope appears white (nervous tissues containing many myelinated axons referred to as white matter)
  16. white matter
  17. myelinated axons designed for

    • (myelinated: goes fast
    • non-myelinated: goes slow)
  18. schwann cells made of 
  19. collaterals
    allow the nervous impulse to be transmitted to more than one other cell
  20. neuroglial cells
    support, structure, nutrition
  21. neuroglial cell types in CNS
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • microglia cells
    • ependymal cells
  22. neuroglial cells in PNS
    • satelittle cells
    • schwann cells
  23. astrocytes
    • neuroglial cell in CNS (look like stars)
    • functions: 1. blood-brain barrier
    • neurons by stabilizing from excessive movement and preventing damage to tissue
    • 3. can change composition of interstitial fluid bathing the neurons
  24. blood-brain barrier
    whats in blood cannot get in brain
  25. oligodendrocytes
    • neuroglial cells in CNS
    • function: line the axolemma (neurilemma on the axon) with a myelin sheath (myelinated) around every axon of CNS.
    • composed of protein and phospholipids
  26. non-myelinated nerve, the lining of the nerve is termed:
    neuro or neurilemma
  27. myelinated nerve in form of oligodendrocytes or schwann cells, the lining of the nerve is termed:
    • outer lining of the myelin:  neurolemma
    • nerve lining: axolemma
  28. neurolemma
    lining of the neuron
  29. telodendrons
    terminal end of the nerve that does not touch the effector organ
  30. synapse
    point at which transmission occurs

    (between neurons or between neuron and muscle fiber:neuromuscular junction)
  31. Acetylcholine
    99% of chemical transmissions in body
  32. microglia cells
    • neuroglial cell in CNS
    • function: phagocytize in CNS (wander through and engulf&destroy cellular waste, debris, pathogens)
  33. ependymal cells
    • neuroglial cells in CNS
    • function: line the ventricles of the brain and spinal canal. responsible for circulation of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects brain and spinal cord. may also aid in production of spinal fluid
  34. satellite cells
    • neuroglial cells in PNS
    • located in PNS with schwann cells
    • function: surround clusters of cell bodies known as ganglia, insulating them from their surroundings
  35. ganglia
    cluster of nerve cells responsible for surging impulses

    (boots the power of the impulse as it comes through)
  36. this matter comes in columns
    white matter
  37. myelin sheath is actually..
    the cell membrane of specialized glial cells (fat cells) called oligodendrocytes in the brain and spinal cord&schwann cells in the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.
  38. Nodes of Ranvier
    small gaps between adjacent glial cells in the myelin sheath 
  39. myelin sheath and nodes of ranvier work together to
    enhance the speed of conduction of the nervous impulses along the axon
  40. anatomical classification of neurons (based upon their structure-classification relates to position of the cell body in relation to the axon)
    • anaxonic neurons
    • bipolar
    • unipolar
    • multipolar
  41. anaxonic neurons
    all cell processes appear similar.

    (there is no anatomical method differentiating between axons and dendrites)
  42. bipolar
    2 processes arising from cell body in middle

    (ear, eye, nose)
  43. unipolar
    continuous dendritic and axonal process with the cell body lying off to one side

    (generally have long axon, in PNS)
  44. multipolar
    one axon from cell body with several dendrites coming in

    (most common in CNS)
  45. neurons classified on function
    • sensory
    • motor
    • interneurons
    • somatic sensory
    • visceral sensory
  46. sensory
    • PNS
    • afferent
    • carry impulses from sensory receptors toward or into the CNS (carries impulses to spinal cord)
  47. motor
    • PNS
    • efferent
    • carry impulses from the CNS to peripheral tissues, organs, or organ systems.
  48. interneurons
    • situated between sensory and motor neurons
    • found only in CNS
  49. somatic sensory
    • impulse from muscle to CNS
    • *minimal*

    (neurons carry information from the external environment to CNS)
  50. visceral sensory
    • impulse from organs to CNS
    • *major*

    (neurons carry information from w/in animals organs and other systems)
  51. muscle
    somatic sensory
  52. organs
    visceral sensory
  53. most sensory is:
    visceral (because involuntary)
  54. mixed nerve
    • contains both afferent and efferent fibers
    • may innervate several different organs, muscles, or glands
  55. endonerium
    fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each axon

    (located right on top of the nerve)
  56. perinerium
    connective tissue that holds groups of axons in bundles

    further held together by epinerium which also encloses a blood supply and fat deposits

    (all to protect the framework of axons)

  57. neurophysiology
    study of the functioning of nervous tissue
  58. impulses are in the form of electrical stimulus caused by
    changing the concentration of certain ion (Na, K) on the inside and outside of the membrane of the neuron
  59. which can move more easily out of the cell, Na+ or K+?
    • K+ (Potassium)
    • can move more easily out of the cell then Na+ can enter

    (consequently there is a loss of positive charge from the inside of the cell, leaving the inside of the cell with a negative charge relative to the outside)
  60. extracellular fluid (ECF)
    • outside the nerve
    • high concentration of sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-)
  61. intracellular fluid (ICF)
    high concentration of potassium ions (K+) and negatively charged proteins
  62. transmembrane potential/resting potential
    there is an overall excess of negative charge on the inner surface of the membrane when compared to the outer surface.

    (difference in distribution of positive&negative charges on either side of the cell membrane)
  63. the difference in electrical charge measured in
    millivolts (mV)

    resting neuron transmembrane potential: 0.07 V or -70mV
  64. passive transport/diffusion
    moves from higher concentration to lower concentration 

    (the transport of K+ or Na+ does not require any input of energy=passive transport)

    K+ moves out of the neuron and Na+ moves into the neuron normally without the sodium/potassium pump in a passive transport through the K+ and Na+ channels
  65. # of fibers stimulated is dependent upon
    strength of stimulus
  66. electrochemical gradient
    both chemical and electrical forces combine to result in movement of ions into the cell.

    • Na+ goes into the neuron because:
    • -Na+ is at a higher concentration outside the cell than inside, the chemical gradient that exists results in movement into the cell
    • -electrical attraction of positively charged ions (Na+) towards the negatively charged interior of the cell
  67. K+
  68. Na+
  69. two major ions that play a role in transmission of the nervous impulse
    Potassium and Sodium
  70. If the cell is to maintain homeostasis
    must be able to retrieve some of lost K+ from outside the cell and get rid of excess Na+ from the inside of the cell

    (to do this energy is used to activate sodium/potassium pump)
  71. sodium/potassium pump
    permits exchange of intracellular Na+ for extracellular K+

    (by using a carrier protein molecule (like revolving door in nice hotels) located in the cell membrane, called the sodium/potassium ATPase pump)
  72. ATPase pump
    carrier protein molecule that uses energy from the conversion of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to move the ions against their electrochemical gradients. This is active transport.
  73. Active Transport
    using energy to get done.

    uses energy from conversion of ATP to ADP to move ions against their electrochemical gradient

    takes energy in the form of active transport to move the Na+ ions out for the K+ ions that they move in
  74. transmembrane potential in resting nueron

    • also referred to as resting potential
    • cell membrane is polarized
  75. depolarization
    alter transmembrane potential and reverse it momentarily so that the inside of the cell is positively charged and the outside negatively charged
  76. action potential
    change in potential

    (depolarization&action potential basically same thing)
  77. steps of action potential
    • 1. resting potential
    • 2. nerve received stimulus
    • 3. K+ moving out rapidly
    • 4. no net charge movement (all Na+ & K+ outside)
    • 5. Na+ moving in rapidly
    • 6. repolarization

    (1-5 all depolarization)
  78. threshold stimulus
    certain level/minimal amount of depolarization required before an action potential can be triggered

    (once the stimulus has caused the neuron to become depolarized above the threshold level, then an action potential is triggered)
  79. all-or-none law
    once threshold is exceeded, whether by gradual or sudden stimulus, the magnitude and duration of the response is the same

    (muscles- contract to its fullest or not at all)
  80. refractory stage
    • neuron at this stage is unresponsive.
    • if a second stimulus acts upon a neuron in which an action potential is on going then a second action potential will not be produced.
  81. absolute refractory period
    the time it takes for a neuron to be able to generate a second action potential from the start of the first

    (time it takes to start another action potential)
  82. relative refractory period
    period between the end of the absolute refractory period and a return to the resting potential

    period where a second action potential can be triggered, although it requires the stimulus to exceed the threshold depolarization

    sodium channels re-opened, influx of Na+ exceeds the movement of K+ leaving the cell, triggering a second action potential
  83. at the synapse,
    action potential from the axon of the first nerve cell (presynaptic neuron) is carried across interstitial space (synaptic cleft) to the dendrites of the next nerve cell (postsynaptic neuron)
  84. receptors filled=
    feel no pain

    (give chemical to fill them up)
  85. electrical transmission
    • synaptic gap/cleft is small.
    • occurs when two cells are very close together

    action potential is automatically transmitted into the adjacent cell by causing a membrane depolarization
  86. chemical transmission
    • synaptic gap is large.
    • impulse in the presynaptic neuron causes release of a chemical (neurotransmitter) which diffuses across the synaptic gap to the postsynaptic neuron and triggers a change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. this depolarizes the postsynaptic neuron generating an action potential in the postsynaptic cell.
  87. transmission across the synapse occurs primarily by
    chemical means

    most common: Acetylcholine
  88. neurons releasing Acetylcholine are classified as
  89. 2 receptors of Acetylcholine (cholinergic) 
    • nicotinic
    • muscarinic
  90. adrenaline
  91. neurotrasmitters of peripheral
    • amino acids
    • monamines (modified amino acids)
    • polypeptides
    • acetylcholine
    • nor-epinephrine
    • some 20 compounds
  92. Catecholamines
    • 1. Nor-epinephrine
    • 2. Epinephrine
    • 3. Dopamine
    • 4. L-Dopa
  93. neurons releasing Nor-epinephrine are classified as
  94. characteristics of Acetylcholine
    • (cholinergic)
    • "digestion"
    • inhibitor=acetylcholinesterase
    • two receptors: nicotinic&muscarinic
  95. characteristics of Nor-epinephrine
    • (adrenergic)
    • "fight"
    • active only at post-synaptic site of sympathetic system
    • four receptors: alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2 (all over the body)
  96. these transmitters decrease with age
    • gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    • glutamate
  97. transmitters of CNS
    • gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    • glutamate
  98. Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    • inhibitory neurotransmitter of CNS.
    • binding GABA to its receptor produces hyperpolarization or inhibition.

    • block external sounds
    • as older decreases= "noisy"
  99. Glutamate
    • excitatory neurotransmitter of CNS.
    • receptors for glutamate are involved with memory and learning.
  100. myloencephalitis
    infection of spinal cord and brain
  101. usually administer epidural for c-section between
    T13 and L1

    • makes sense because over abdominal area
    • (always flows backward)
  102. administer epidural to large animals helping with distocia
    between last sacral and first coccygeal
  103. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    • -usually clear, colorless, slightly alkaline fluid
    • -contains small amount of protein
    • -a few lymphocytes may be present but no RBC
    • -circulates through 4 ventricles of the brain, only 3 produce the cerebral spinal fluid
    • -also passes through subarachnoid space

    function: protect the brain and spinal cord by forming a fluid cushion between the delicate nerve tissues and the bones of the skull and vertebral column
  104. subarachnoid space
    space between the inner (pia mater) and middle (arachnoid mater) of the 3 layers of connective tissue (meninges) which surround the brain
  105. meninges
    three layers of connective tissue that surround the brain

    • 1. Pia mater
    • 2. Arachnoid mater
    • 3. Dura mater
  106. Pia mater
    lies on surface of spinal cord

    (innermost layer of the meninges)
  107. Arachnoid mater
    separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space via CSF
  108. Dura mater
    • outer layer
    • thick membrane composed of tough fibrous tissue that lines the inside of the skull forming the periosteum
  109. cisterna magna
    • opening between atlas and occipital
    • very beginning of vertebral column starts here

    (samples may be collected for analysis from an enlargement of the subarachnoid space here)
  110. 3 parts of hindbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
    • cerebellum
  111. most rostral part of hind brain
  112. responsible for basic control of heart rate and respiration (known as the brainstem reflexes)
    pons and medulla oblongata 
  113. cerebellum
    controls motor coordination of the body
  114. end of spinal cord
    cauda equina

    (group of nerves that run together in the region of the 7th lumbar vertebrae and the sacral region, resembling a mare's tail)
  115. all spinal nerves are
  116. number of pairs of spinal nerves that leave the spinal cord

    passing through the intervertebral foramina, each passing into a different part of the body.

    each spinal nerve surrounded by layer of meningeal dura and has a dorsal and ventral root.
  117. dorsal root
    carries sensory nerve fibers into the spinal cord

    comprised of sensory afferent fibers
  118. ventral root
    carries motor fibers to the musculoskeletal system

    comprised of motor efferent fibers 
  119. PNS includes
    all other nervous tissue that is not within the brain or spinal cord.

    (includes all the nerves that pass out from the spinal cord to muscles and organs, as well as those that carry impulses back into the CNS)
  120. efferent nerves can be divided into 2 broad categories
    part of the PNS- Somatic Nerves supplying skeletal muscle

    part of PNS- supplying smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands from the Autonomic System (all involuntary)
  121. efferent nerves of the PNS-Somatic Nerves
    carry impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles.

    somatic sensory receptors are responsible for providing feedback to the brain from the skeletal muscle. majority of nerves in this system are under voluntary control.
  122. PNS-Somatic Nerves can be further subdivided into
    cranial and spinal nerves

    (depending upon the part of the body they innervate)
  123. cranial sensory
    carry impulses to the brain like the sense of smell

  124. cranial motor
    carry impulses from the brain to the effector organ muscles of the eye

  125. cranial mixed
    carry impulses from the brain to the effector organ and back to the brain.


    some cranial nerves "mixed" have both a motor and a sensory function
  126. first mixed nerve
  127. these nerves supply the entire musculoskeletal system
    spinal nerves
  128. plexus
    nerves interweave to produce a complex network of fibers
  129. brachial plexus
    network of nerve fibers that gives rise to the radial, ulnar, and medial nerves supplying the forelimb
  130. pelvic plexus
    network of nerve fibers that gives rise to the sciatic (hip), obturator, perineal (area between anus and scrotum/vulva), pudendal (external genitals), and others.
  131. reflexes important because
    tell you the depth of anesthesia 
  132. reflex reaction
    inborn, involuntary response towards an external stimulus that is mediated by the nervous system
  133. example of conditioned reflex response
    Pavlov's dogs
  134. reflex from external stimuli
    ex: reaction standing on a sharp object
  135. reflex from internal stimuli
    • coughing
    • swallowing
    • vomiting
    • salivation
  136. "digestion"
    • parasympathetic
    • acetylcholine
    • cholinergic
  137. "fight or flight"
    • sympathetic
    • nor-epinephrine
    • adrenergic
  138. reflexes for surgical monitoring
    • palpebral (blink reflex)
    • pedal
    • ear flick
    • corneal
    • size of pupil
    • pupillary light
    • heart&respiratory
    • response to surgical stimuli
  139. 2 forms of afferent (sensory) system of the PNS
    • somatic sensory neurons (from muscles)
    • visceral sensory neurons (from organs)
  140. somatic sensory neurons provide
    information about the external environment of the animal (from skin, muscles..)
  141. visceral sensory neurons monitor
    the enteral environment and organs
  142. exteroceptors
    stimulated by information from external environment such as touch, sight, smell, hearing, taste, pressure, temperature 
  143. proprioceptors
    monitor movements and position of skeletal muscles and joints

    (closed eyes open when loosing balance)
  144. interoceptors
    monitor internal environment such as respiratory, digestive, urinary, cardiovascular and reproductive

    also stimulated by deep pressure and pain
  145. unspecialized free nerve endings
    • involved in detecting touch and painful stimuli
    • located in the skin, muscles, viscera
  146. specialized or encapsulated nerve endings
    • respond to touch and pressure
    • located in dermis of skin
  147. specialized non-neuronal receptor cells
    located in ear, eye, tastebuds
  148. most common classification of receptors
    type of stimulus to which the receptor responds
  149. chemoreceptors
    detect chemical changes in local area around receptor. 

    (chemoreceptors in brain detect changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood)
  150. mechanoreceptors
    respond to touch and pressure and are predominately located in the skin. 

    there are also receptors that detect the degree of stretch of muscles in the stomach, lungs, blood vessels.
  151. mechanoreceptors also called
    • baro receptors
    • pressoreceptors
    • mechanical receptors
  152. thermoreceptors
    • stimulated by changes in temperature
    • located in the skin
  153. pain receptors or nociceptors
    • triggered by: stimulus that may cause tissue damage or injury
    • release of chemicals in an area of inflammation
  154. electromagnetic receptors
    • stimulated by light
    • found in retina of eye
  155. proprioceptors (as collective term)
    collective term used to group together all the receptors that relay information about the position of the body and its movements
  156. adaptation
    • receptors show a reduced response in the presence of a constant stimulus
    • helps to prevent unnecessary waste of energy 
  157. these receptors show little adaptation
    pain receptors or nociceptors 

    (helps the survival of the animal bc as long as pain persists the animal will perform behaviors that minimize the pain/aids in healing process prevent from using injured site)
  158. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    • controls parts of the body that are part of an animal's unconscious actions
    • "involuntary"

    (ex: when animal is anesthetized its heart still beats and breathing still occurs)
  159. somatic nervous system (SNS)
    part of the nervous system where animal has some form of conscious control
  160. autonomic nervous system coordinates the activities of:
    • cardiovascular
    • respiratory system
    • digestive
    • urinary
    • reproductive system
  161. autonomic nervous system is divided into 2 parts
    • sympathetic (adrenergic)
    • parasympathetic (cholinergic)

    they have opposite effects: one being excitatory, one inhibitory
  162. adrenergic drug works with the 
    sympathetic portion of ANS
  163. cholinergic drug works with the
    parasympathetic portion of ANS
  164. sympathetic nervous system
    • part of ANS that prepares the body for activity.
    • "fight or flight"

    preganglionic neurons in the thoracic and lumbar regions

    • postganglionic neurons with which they synapse are located in 3 diff locations:
    • sympathetic chain ganglia or lateral ganalia
    • collateral ganglia
    • adrenal medulla
  165. sympathetic chain ganglia
    • located on either side of vertebral column
    • their neurons affect the head, body wall, limbs, inside of thorax

    stimulation causes: constriction of blood vessels in skin,  increase blood to skeletal muscles&brain, release of lipid from fat stores, dilation of pupils, acceleration of heart rate and strength of cardiac contraction, bronchodilation

  166. collateral ganglia
    • located anterior to bodies of vertebrae
    • neurons affect tissue and organs of abdomen and pelvis

    stimulation causes: reduced blood flow to visceral organs, decreased activity of digestive system, release of glucose from glycogen reserves in liver, reduction in rate of formation of urine, stimulation of release of lipids from fat stores
  167. adrenal medulla
    • center of each adrenal gland
    • modified ganglion
    • postganglionic neurons with very short axons which when stimulated release their neurotransmitters into blood stream
    • not through a synapse but directly into circulation

    allows the neurotransmitters (epinephrine&nor-epi) to have an effect as hormones on many target cells throughout the body
  168. acetylcholine is released at the synapse between pre and postganglionic neurons
    cholinergic synapses
  169. effect of acetylcholine on postganglionic neurons is always 
  170. postganglionic fibers are longer as they innervate the 
  171. postganglionic neurons once stimulated (of sympathetic system)
    carry the impulses to the effector, and at the junction between the neuron and the effector another neurotransmitter is released. usually nor-epinephrine in which case we call the synaptic terminals adrenergic
  172. nor-epinephrine effects
  173. epinephrine effects
    alpha and beta
  174. usually pain receptors
    alpha 2 
  175. more common alpha receptors
    • alpha 1
    • (generally an excitatory effect)
  176. alpha 2
    inhibitory effect
  177. beta 1 receptors 
    • cause an increase in metabolism of cells
    • (ex: increase in heart rate)
  178. beta 2 receptors
    • tend to have inhibitory effect
    • (ex: causing relaxation of smooth muscles in bronchioles)
  179. sympathetic system has how many receptors?

  180. parasympathetic system has how many receptors?

    (nicotinic, muscarinic)
  181. receptors involved in treating shock
    • alpha 1
    • beta 1
    • beta 2
  182. treating shock
    need to constrict vessels (vasoconstriction) and increase cardiac output

    • bc shock is opposite.
    • (shock is vasodilation and reduced cardiac output)

    need to constrict vessels to: divert blood to area that needs it. constricting vessels raises the blood pressure which is the needed increased cardiac output.
  183. alpha 1 acts on:
    • smooth muscle to:
    • constrict blood vessels
    • constrict sphincters in GI tract
    • contract muscles to enlarge pupils
    • contract sphincter of urethra
  184. beta 1 acts on:
    • cardiac muscle to:
    • increase force of contraction of heart: increases cardiac output
  185. beta 2 acts on:
    • smooth muscle to:
    • vasodilation of bronchi and lungs to allow for increased oxygen/ease breathing
  186. parasympathetic nervous system
    • predominates when animal in relaxed state
    • preganglionic neurons located in the brain (cranial ) and spinal cord (sacral)
  187. major nerve that carries information from most of the parasympathetic division
    Vagus nerve
  188. dog kicked in throat (stimulates vagus) give them:
    anti-cholingergic drug

  189. most important cranial nerves (control respiration and pulse)
    • 9- Glossopharyngeal
    • 10- Vagus
  190. only neurotransmitter of parasympathetic system
  191. 2 receptors of parasympathetic system
    • nicotinic
    • muscarinic
  192. parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions have opposing but _________ actions to permit a wide range of control.

    (heart: if the sympathetic increases then the parasympathetic decreases

    digestive: if sympathetic decreases, parasympathetic increases)
  193. not all organs have dual innervation. give some examples
    spleen and adrenal medullae have only one sympathetic innervation.

    ciliary muscles of the eye are only innervated by the parasympathetic system.
  194. ciliary muscles of the eye innervated by
    parasympathetic system (pupil constriction)
  195. pupil constriction
  196. radial muscle of the iris of the eye are stimulated by adrenergic transmissions of the 
    sympathetic system (pupil dilation)
  197. pupil dilation
  198. state of tone
    base level of activity that can increase or decreases depending on the situation

    (ANS usually exists in a state of tone)
  199. the parasympathetic system exerts a basal tone on the activity of the heart via what nerve?
    vagus nerve

    (if severed, heart rate increases as the inhibiting effects of the parasympathetic nervous system are no longer present)
  200. visceral reflexes are processed within the _____________ to provide a __________ feedback mechanism.
    • spinal cord
    • rapid

    (levels of activity within the 2 divisions of ANS are controlled by areas within the brain and spinal cord)
  201. medulla and pons contain these centers:
    • *cardiac
    • *respiratory
    • salivation
    • digestive secretion
    • movement of intestine
    • urinary function
  202. medulla and pons regulated by the
  203. heart beating fast, being frightened fall within which part of the ANS?

    ("fight or flight")
  204. identify the 4 catecolamines
    • nor-epinephrine
    • epinephrine
    • dopamine
    • L-dopa
  205. 2 receptors involved with acetylcholine drug innervations
    • nicotinic
    • muscarinic
  206. identify the 2 muscles innervated by the suprascapular nerve
    supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles
  207. olfactory is what type of nerve?
  208. trigeminal is what type of nerve?
  209. vagus is what type of nerve?
  210. the time it takes for the neuron to be able to generate a second action potential from the start of the first
    absolute refractory period
  211. relative refractory period because..
    the cell is still refractory to stimuli of normal intensity but may respond to relatively large stimuli.
  212. sympathetic system increases:
    • heart rate
    • force of heart contraction
    • diameter of bronchioles (dilates)
    • diameter of pupil (dilates)
    • diameter of muscle blood vessels
  213. sympathetic system decreases:
    • gastrointestinal motility, secretions, blood flow
    • diameter of skin blood vessels
    • diameter of blood vessels to kidney
  214. parasympathetic system increases:
    gastrointestinal motility, secretions, and blood flow
  215. parasympathetic system decreases:
    • heart rate
    • diameter of bronchioles (constricts)
    • diameter of pupil (constricts)