AP Psych: Unit 11

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AP Psych: Unit 11
2013-03-04 02:59:38

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  1. reification
    thinking about things too objectively when really they are abstract, such as with intelligence
  2. intelligence test
    a way to measure a person’s mental aptitudes and compare them to others, using a numerical score
  3. intelligence
    the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
  4. general intelligence (g)
    • the factor that refers to our general intelligence, it includes a lot of mental abilities and covers all of the parts of an intelligence test
    • coined by Spearman
  5. factor analysis
    a statistical test that “identifies clusters of related items”; used to identify the underlying dimensions in a person that may predispose behavior or their ability to do well on a test
  6. arguments to support general intelligence
    people who score in one area often score high in other areas
  7. arguments to support multiple intelligences
    G scores correlate with the ability to solve new problems, but they do not correlate with people's social skills
  8. Gardner's multiple intelligence theory
    nine intelligences: existential, linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal (self), interpersonal (others), naturalist
  9. savant syndrome
    a condition where a person who is limited in mental ability displays an exceptional skill unrelated to their particular weakness
  10. how do intelligence scores compare with income
  11. other than intelligence, what is an important determinant of success
    grit: being conscientious, involved with others, and energetic/enthusiastic
  12. triarchic theory of three intelligences
    Sternberg's theory that we have three intelligences; analytic (academic problem-solving), creative, and practical intelligence
  13. analytic (academic problem-solving) intelligence
    part of Sternberg's triarchic theory, includes the ability to do well in traditional classes, predicts school grades and vocational (job-related) skills
  14. creative intelligence
    part of Sternberg's triarchic theory, being able to react and adapt to situations and come up with original ideas
  15. practical intelligence
    part of Sternberg's triarchic theory, being able to accomplish everyday tasks, such as making decisions, motivating others, managing your, emotional intelligence, and improving
  16. Spearman's theory
    created the idea of general intelligence; we have a basic intelligence that can predict our success in various academic areas
  17. Thurstone's theory
    intelligence can be broken down into seven factors: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory
  18. Gardner's theory
    created the nine multiple intelligences
  19. Sternberg's theory
    triarchic theory of three intelligences include analytical, creative, and practical intelligences which people use for the real world
  20. social intelligence
    understanding social situations and managing yourself, proposed by Thorndike
  21. emotional intelligence
    • the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
    • coined by Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso
  22. correlation between brain size and intelligence
    +.33 correlation
  23. associations between intelligence and brain size are present in the ? lobe(s)
    frontal and parietal
  24. neural plasticity
    the ability to grow/adapt neural circuits in accordance to the environment
  25. gray matter vs. white matter and intelligence relation
    • gray matter: neural cell bodies
    • white matter: axons and dendrites
    • intelligence is more positively linked with gray matter
  26. quick-wittedness
    the speed of your perceptions and neural processing
  27. things that correlate with high intelligence
    • brain size
    • synapse concentration
    • effective neural plasticity
    • more gray matter
    • frontal lobe activity
    • high perceptual and neurological speed
  28. mental age
    the age that is associated with your performance level, coined by Binet
  29. intelligence quotient
    the ratio of mental age (ma) to actual age (ca) times 100; a normal person would have an IQ of 100 in a contemporary intelligence test
  30. eugenics
    a movement in the 1800's that emphasized the measurement of human traits and only encouraged smart/fit people to reproduce
  31. aptitude tests
    • tests designed to predict a person's future performance, testing one's capacity for learning
    • e.g. college entrance exams
  32. achievement tests
    • tests designed to assess what a person has learned
    • e.g. the AP exam!
  33. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
    the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
  34. requirements for psychological tests to be successful
    standardized, reliable, and valid
  35. standardization
    how tests compare the scores of a representative sample of people with the scores of the test takers
  36. normal curve
    (normal distribution) the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that is present in an analysis of a lot of data, with most score near the mean and less near the extremes
  37. Flynn effect
    describes how intelligence performance has been increasing/improving
  38. reliability
    a measurement of how consistent a test’s results are, measured by the consistency of the scores on parts of the test (split-half scores) or through retesting (test-retest scores)
  39. validity
    a measurement of how well a test assesses what it is supposed to assess, includes content and predictive validity
  40. content validity
    the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
  41. predictive validity
    “the extent to which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict”; measured by looking at the correlation between the score and the behavior