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The kidneys and lungs work together by maintaining a balanced pH with an acid base ratio of?
The blood becomes alkalotic when a person breaths at a higher rate, thus removing more CO2 from the body. T/F?
T, by removing more CO2 the person decreases the amount of carbonic acid that is able to be produced. pCO2 would show an amount below 35. Carbonic acid is increased.
A person that is breathing at a slower rate retains more CO2 increasing the amount of H2CO3 produced. This creates a more acidotic blood represented by an increase in pCO2 over 45. T/F?
What are some common causes for respiratory acidosis?
- CNS depression due to head injury or sedating medications.
- Respiratory muscle dysfunction due to injury, dz, or medications.
- Massive PE
- Pain that causes Hypoventilation.
SSx of Respiratory Acidosis
- Respiratory distress
- shallow breathing
- Tahcy / dysrhythmias
- AMS, HA, restlessness
Metabolic acidosis is can be caused by anything that would lower the base w/in the blood stream such as:
- Diarrhea and intestinal fistulas.
- Diabetic ketoacidosis
- Renal failure
- Anaerobic metabolism
- Salicylate intoxicatio
SSx of metabolic acidosis include:
- AMS, HA, restlessness
- Lethargy, Stupor, coma
- Dysrhythmias, Warm flushed skin
- Kussmaul’s respirations
- Nausea and vomiting
Causes of Respiratory Alkalosis
- Psychological response such as anxiety or fear
- Increased metabolic demands, such as fever, sepsis, pregnancy, or thyrotoxicosis
- Medications, such as respiratory stimulants
- Central nervous system lesions
Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Alkalosis
- Light headed, Numb & tingling, Confusion, Inability to concentrate, Blurred vision
- Dysrhythmias, Palpitations, Diaphoresis
- Dry mouth, Tetanic spasms of arms & legs
Signs and Symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis
- Respiratory depression
- Dizziness, Lethargy, Disorientation, Seizures, Coma
- Weakness, Muscle twitching, Muscle cramps, Tetany
- Nausea Vomiting
Metabolic alkalosis is one of the most difficult acid-base imbalances to treat. Why? How is it treated?
- Acetazolamide (Diamox), to increase bicarb excretion but resolution imbalance is slow.
- In severe cases, IV administration of acids may be used.
What is MUDPILES and what does it refer to?
- List of things that cause:
- DM T1 SOS
- Iron or INH tox
- Lactic Acidosis
- Salicilate Aspirin