Chapter 19

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Chapter 19
2013-03-04 10:16:04

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  1. This organ system has three major components
    blood, the heart, and the blood vessels
  2. The study of blood
  3. the fluid part of the cardiovascular system
  4. Formed elements
    red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
  5. Functions of blood
    Transport of nutrients, gases, hormones and waste productsRegulation of fluid-electrolyte balance/acid-base balanceClotting mechanisms that prevent excessive blood lossProtection against invading organismsBody temperature regulation
  6. Transport of nutrients, gases, hormones and waste products
    Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells for metabolism and carbon dioxide and waste products from cells for elimination. It carries hormones from endocrine glands toward their target cells.
  7. Regulation of fluid-electrolyte balance/acid-base balance
    Blood regulates of the pH and Ion composition of interstitial fluids. Diffusion between interstitial fluids and blood eliminates local deficiencies or excesses of ions. Blood also absorbs and neutralizes the acids generated by active tissues, such as the lactic acid produced by skeletal muscles.
  8. Clotting mechanisms prevent excessive blood loss
    Blood contains enzymes and proteins that respond to breaks in the vessel walls by initiating the process of clotting . A blood clot acts as a temporary patch and prevents further blood loss.
  9. Protection against invading organisms
    Blood transports white blood cells, with their special defenses, to any area that has a threat from an invading organism or toxin.
  10. Body temperature regulation
    Blood absorbs the heat generated by active skeletal muscles and redistributes it to other tissues. You should remember from the first section of this chapter that the temperature of blood is 100.4.  When the body temperature is high, heat will be lost through the skin. When body temperature is too low, the warm blood is directed temperature-sensitive organs.
  11. Plasma
    the pale yellow fluid that makes up about 55% of blood volume
  12. The major components of plasma
    Water  (92%)Proteins (7%)Other solutes (1%)Waste products,Nutrients,Electrolytes
  13. Serum
    the liquid material remaining after blood-clotting proteins have been removed as a result of clotting.
  14. Formed elements
    the cellular components of blood and collectively they represent about 45% of blood volume
  15. The three classes of formed elements
  16. Hematopoiesis
    the process of blood cell production
  17. hemocytoblast
    a single population of  stem cells
  18. Erythrocytes
    the formed elements is the red blood cell or erythrocyte
  19. RBCs are reported as a part of
    complete blood count
  20. RBCs per cubic millimeter of blood
    • Women: 4.2-5.5 million
    • Men: 4.5-6.3 million
  21. Hemoglobin
    responsible for the cell's ability to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
  22. Erythropoiesis
    the process by which new erythrocytes are produced.
  23. decreased oxygen
    • a decrease in the number of red blood cells carrying the oxygen
    • the inability of the red blood cells to carry oxygen efficiently
    • an increased demand for oxygen
  24. Erythropoietin
    the growth factor from which the stem cell in the bone marrow receives its message to begin producing immature RBCs
  25. hemolysis
    hemoglobin leaks into the plasma
  26. macrophages
    Old, damaged, or defective erythrocytes are removed from the blood by phagocytic cells
  27. Jaundice
    a yellowish staining of the skin and eyes by bile pigments, associated with a bilirubin buildup in the plasma and interstitial spaces.
  28. hemoglobinuria
    When abnormally large numbers of RBCs break down in the bloodstream, urine may turn red or brown
  29. Hematuria
    the presence of intact RBCs in urine, occurs only after kidney damage or damage to vessels along the urinary tract.
  30. polycythemia
    If this number is considerably higher the condition
  31. anemia
    If the number of RBC'S is considerably less than normal
  32. Each hemoglobin molecule has __________ heme group(s) and __________ globin molecule(s).
  33. erythrocytes are broken down
    • hemoglobin is broken down to heme groups and globin molecules
    • biliverdin is produced
    • free bilirubin is produced
    • bilirubin is conjugated to glucuronic acid
    • bilirubin is excreted in bile
  34. stem cells
    Cells in the red bone marrow that give rise to all the formed elements of the blood
  35. condition occurs in a normal individual living at a high altitude
    secondary polycythemia
  36. Can you remember which WBCs are most to least numerous in normal circulating blood?
    • neutrophils
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  37. Macrophages are derived from
  38. Leukocytes
    Leukocytes are the largest of the formed elements
  39. A person with an increased eosinophil count might be suffering from
    An Allergic Reaction
  40. The ability of white blood cells to leave the circulation and enter tissues is called
  41. When a person develops a sore throat, white blood cells are drawn to the area of infection by a process called
  42. Which leukocyte's main function is phagocytosis; these are the first cells to respond?
  43. These leukocytes produce enzymes that reduce the inflammatory response and are associated with allergies or parasitic infections
  44. These leukocytes produce heparin and histamine; they play a role in inflammatory and allergic reactions
  45. Platelets
    • important for proper blood clotting
    • arise from the hemocytoblast stem cell
  46. thrombocytopenia
    decreased platelets develop hundreds of small hemorrhagic areas under the skin and throughout internal tissue
  47. Hemostasis
    the stoppage of bleeding
  48. Vascular Spasm
    • immediate, temporary closure of trauma to a blood vessel
    • vasoconstriction: contraction of smooth muscle fibers within the wall of the blood vessel.
    • This is a local response.
    • The result is nervous reflexes, pain impulses from the traumatized vessel and nearby tissue
    • results in the of release of chemicals, including ADP, tissue factor, and prostacyclin from endothelial cells
    • Endothelial cells release endothelins
    • These peptide hormones stimulate smooth muscle contraction and division of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts 
    • This is direct damage to the blood vessel wall
    • the greater the trauma, the greater the spasm
    • sharp cuts bleed more than crushing trauma
    • lasts 20-30 min.
  49. If your son is diagnosed with hemophilia, he would have
    a disorder of the clotting process
  50. chemicals in the order in which they would be used for coagulation
    • activated Factor XII
    • prothrombinase 
    • thrombin
    • fibrinogen
  51. Heparin
    is a potent anticoagulant
  52. Fibrinolysis is responsible for
    clot dissolution