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glucose is a major carb, it is used for?
energy by cells of the body
excess of glucose is stored as glycogen in?
muscle & live for later use
insulin i s a hormone that is produced by?
Betta cells of the pancreas
insulin lowers glucose by
- increasing the intake of glucose to cells
- increases rate of glycolysis (glucose breakdown)
- glucose changes to lactic acide
what is a normal range for fasting adult of plasma glucose?
glucose is measured to determine 2 types of disorders that?
is involved in abnormal plasma glucose levels
- high glucose in bood
- may be diabetic (>99)
- lower glucose in blood
- due to high insulin/bacterial infection
- liver disease
- brain damage
- cushings syndrom
- bacterial infection
prep glucose fasting samples to get
an accurate blood glucose
glucose fasting samples to get
- only h20 for 12 hrs
- no diuretics, steroids, aspirin for 3 days before test
- FBS>120 mg/dl - may be diabetic (may have 2hr. pp. or GTT)
2 hr postprandial sample used to?
- screen gestational diabets
- monitor insulin dose
fasting patients eat/drink?
- 100 q carbs for breakfast
- drinks a glucose solution w/ 75g of glucose
draw blood for a 1 hr ppbg?
2 hrs after pt finishes breakfast or drink the solution
2hrppbg having > 140 mg/dl is?
- return to fasting leves in 1 2/-2 hrs
GTT (glucose tolerance test) is?
more thorough than FBS or 2hr pp.
hemoglobin A2C is also called?
- measures glucose control over 3 mtnsh
- diabetics should be &% or less (if in control)
performing a GTT on pts with?
pt with abnormal FBS or 2hr ppbg
performing a GTT diet 3 days prior to include?
150 gms per day of carbs
performing a GTT collect fasting us & blood and test a?
ua w/ chemstrip & plasma on chemistry analyzer
if FBS is <160 on a GTT you will have the pt?
drink a glucose solution
if FB is >160 on a GTT you will ?
contact the physician before continuing with the test
after the glucose solution is consumed you start the timer and what?
monitor the pt
after drinking the glucose solution you will get blood drawn & ua every how many minutes?
- (1/2, 1, 2, 3, hrs)
during the GTT the patient must follow these guidelines?
- nothing but h2o to drink
- no smoking (inc. metabolism)
- no activity (inc. metabolism)
- watch pt. for reaction (light headed, nausea)
- obtain each urine sample before drawing blood sampltes
- must have 5 urine & 5 blood samples
interpret of results for a normal OGTT is?
160-180 mg/dl at 30 & 60 mins (NORMAL)
110 at 2/3 hrs (NORMAL)
diabetes mellitus of pt w/ GTT results of?
urine samples (of any) chem-strip, renal threshold exceed
glucose level are higher w/ each blood samples (may have 4-5 hr sample)
pt. lacks insulin
hypoglycemia levels may never go over what during the gtt ?
110 mg/dl glucose
glucometer instructions are found in what?
similarities of all glucometers are?
- battery operation (easy)
- code strip (with each lot # of test strips)
- check strip (like a standard, calibrates the meter)
- control solutions (run and values fall w/i acceptable range)
- glucose in pt will- cause a color change on test strip (converted to #)
- maintenance of machine (clean, run controls, keep test strips @ room tempt in closed container)
4 reasones to use home glucometers?
- check glucose immediately when symptoms occur
- decide insulin dosage quickly
- keeps glucose at more desirable level so diseases is minimized
electrolytes dissolved in plasma they regulate what?
- muscle contractions
electrolytes are many ions but sodium, potassium, chloride, co2 are
most often analyzed
electrolytes must balance out or?
there are harmful effects to pts
electrolytes are kept in balance by the?
heart and lungs
potassium's normal range in plasma is?
potassium is need for?
if potassium is hemolyzed samples means it is?
- the potassium is inside rbs
- need to re-draw the sample
sodium's normal range in plasma is?
does hemolysis affect sodium?
chloride's normal range is?
96-109 mmol/l (meg/l)
co2's normal range in plasma is?
if co2 is higher is is from?
blood form a vein
if co2 is lower is is from?
blood from an artery
co2 is affected by what organ's functions?
samples for electrolytes, potassium, sodium, chloride, and co2 is?
- urine for electrolytes also
sodium level in blood
potassium level in blood
basic metabolic profile has how many tests?
basic metabolic profile has?
- lytes (na, k, cl, co2)
- other test: glucose, bun, crea, calcium
- AGAP: calculation to see if electrolytes balance
- common codes- 250 diabetic v58.69 (k, or meds)
comprehensive metabolic profile has basic metabolic profile plus 6 other tests that check what organ?
comprehensive metabolic profile's enzymes are?
- both are liver enzymes
- must have small amount (NORMAL)
in comprehensive metabolic profile alt, ast are ordered separately if?
- pt. has liver problems
- if pt. is on cholesterol lowering drug
alp - (ALKALINE PHOSPHATE) is found in?
bone & liver in some amounts
alp (ALKALINE PHOSPHATE) in children's levels have a higher normal range due to?
TBil (total bilirubin) have small amounts except?
newborns have higher levels (NORMAL)
Tbil (total bilirubin) high in adults with?
total protein and albumin (t.p. & alb) is part of our total protein, in what people does level decrease?
liver profile is ordered when?
problems with liver
2 tests that test kidneyf unction?
4 tests of a lipid profile?
- total cholesterol
how many blood samples && what times?
- 5 SAMPLE
- times: 30, 60, 120, 180
norm range for FBS?
diabetic hgb Alc range?
7% OR LESS