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List some diseases that are attributable to poor diet
- heart disease/stroke
- learning and attention problems in children
- autoimmune disorders, etc
What is the primary risk factor for developing diabetes?
Obesity. People who are obese are 5x more likely to develop diabetes than people with a BMI of 25 or less
What dietary factors make us less obese?
- more fruits and veggies
- low GI carbs
- get adequate protein
- get enough calcium and vit D
- less fat
- more fibre
What is in a mediterranian diet?
- more bread, root vegetables, green vegetables, fish, fruit, olive and canola oil
- Less red meat, butter, cream
What are the three types of fatty acids and some common sources of each?
- 1) Saturated fatty acids: animal fats, dairy products, eggs, coconut oil
- 2) Monounsaturated fats: nuts, olive oil, avocados
- 3) Polyunsaturated fats (omega 3 and 6): (O-3) walnuts, flaxseed, hempseed, dark leafy greens, fatty fish; (O-6) cooking oils, seeds
What types of fat should we, in NA, typically eat less of?
- Saturated fats
- Trans fats
- Omega 6 fats
Effects of too much/little protein in the diet
too little (tea and toast): hair loss, impaired immunity, weakness, delayed healing
too much: harmful to liver, calcium depletion (bone loss)
What factors influence the GI of a meal?
- 1) slow rate of stomach emptying (fibre, acids, protein, fat)
- 2) amylose (slow; basmati rice, lentils) or amylopectin (fast; potatoes, wheat flour)
- 3) starch gelatinization (pasta cooking time, sticky rice)
- 4) physical barriers (whole grains more resistant to enzymes than refined)
What is the RDA for Ca?
- adolescents: 1300 mg/day
- adults: 1000 mg/day
- pregnant: 1000 mg/day
- adults (50+): 1200 mg/day
What is the RDA for sodium?
- less than 2400 mg/day (less than one teaspoon)
- low sodium diet = 1500 mg/day
What do goitrogens do?
supress iodine uptake and therefore cause goiters. Cabbage, brocolli, etc
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
- A, D, E, K
- -can be stored in body tissues
- -better absorbed with a fatty meal
What are the water soluble vitamins?
- B and C vitamins
- -not stored in the body to any appreciable amount
- -don't require fat for absorption
What are the 4 B vitamins that are added to enriched flour?