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What is primary hypertension
When there is no known cause
When HR increases what happens to perfusion?
Myocardial perfusion decreases
What are the semilunar valves?
Aortic and Pulmonic
What are the artioventricular valves?
Tricuspid and Mitral
What is the pacemaker of the heart?
What moves into the cell to cause depolarization?
Na and Ca
On an EKG what happens during a p wave?
Atrial contraction (depolarization)
On an EKG what happens during a QRS?
Ventricular contraction (atrium repolarization)
On an EKG what happens during a T wave?
What is Cardiac Output a measurement of?
What forms S1?
Closure of the Tricuspid and Mitral valves
What forms S2?
Closure of the aortic valve and pulmonic valve
What forms S3?
Rapid ventricular filling
What forms S4?
During atrial contraction, due to enlargement
What is SV?
the amt of blood ejected by left ventricle in one systole, average resting SV=70mL
What is CO?
volume of blood ejected from heart in 1 minute
What is Preload?
the amt of blood returning via vena cavae & pulmonary arteries
What is contractility?
ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in response to an electrical impulse
What is afterload?
pressure to push blood out ventricles to peripheral vessels
What is your ejection fraction?
the percent of end-diastolic volume ejected with each heartbeat
What happens to workload when your afterload increases?
It must increase as well
How can you control SV?
By effecting preload, afterload and contractillity
What is Frank Starlings law?
The greater the initial length or stretch of the cardiac muscle cells, the greater the degree of shortening that occur
What are pulse numbers for classification?
- +1=Thready pulse
- +2=Diminish pulse
- +3=Easy to palpate
What are cardiac biomarkers?
- CK (Creatine Kinase) and CK-MB
- Release when cells are damaged
- Early maker of MI, peaks in 4-12 hrs, and return to normal in 24 hrs
- Troponin T (0.010-0.047 ng/ml) and I (0.034-0.12 ng/ml)
- Only in cardiac muscle, can be detected in 3-4 hrs, peak time 4-24hrs, remain elevated 1-3 wks
- These early and prolonged evaluations make very early diagnosis of MI and late diagnosis if the p’t delayed seeking treatment
What is a TEE?
What is hypertension?
As a SBP greater than 140mmHg and a DBP greater than 90 mm Hg
What is secondary hypertension?
- Renal disease,endocrine disorders (Cushing’s syndrome or Pheochromocytoma), coarctation of the aorta, pregnancy, etc.
- Age<20&>50, suddenly develops, should be suspected
What are some changes that take place as a part of Hypertension?
- Arteriosclerosis: thickening or hardening of
- the arterial wall
- Atherosclerosis: type of arteriosclerosis
- involving the formation of plaque within the
- arterial wall
What is the DASH diet?
is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods; includes meat, fish, poultry, nuts and beans; and is limited in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, red meat, and added fats.