bio 101 test 2

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  1. systematics
    is a discipline of biology that focuses on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships this includes taxonomy!
  2. taxonomy
    which is the identification, naming, and classification of species
  3. classification hierarchy
    domain> kingdom> phylum> class> order> family> genus> species
  4. species concepts
    • one way of defining speacies  it defines a speaies as a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with on another and produce fertile offspring 
    • in nameing of speacies use two names called binomiel the first part is the genus wich the speacies belongs to the secound is what is uniquek for that speacies and is in latin
  5. binomial nomenclature
    the use of two latin words to name something rather than useing polynomial nomenclature
  6. domains of life
    there are three domains bacteria, archaea eukarya
  7. cell types (prokaryote vs eukaryote)
    • procariote are bacteria and archeria  they have no nuclous but they do have a nucleoid which is not contained by any wall they typicaly have flagellum or pili which help them to move around they have a cell wall and a plasma membrane there ribosomes are floting aound there whole cell and they are smaler than the eucariote cell 
    • eucariote are animal plants protosits and fungi cells they are more complx and bigger they have a cell wall and a nuclous and other organelles
  8. kingdoms
    the number of kingdoms in the eucaria doamin is still under debate but all sientests agree on plantae, fungi and animilia. even though protists do not fit into any of the catergories this catergorie is in debate
  9. Anabolism vs catabolism
    • anabolism this is a sythisis reaction that we are dehydrateing things to make them bigger this makes enderogonic substances 
    • catabolism invalves braking down of a bigger substance into a smaller substance
  10. exergonic vs endergonic
    • enderganic is produced from anabolisum  
    • exergonic energy weak by-products
  11. reactants vs products
    • reactants= are a stating miterial in a chemical reaction
    • product = a ending material in a chemical reaction
    • products of one thing are reactents for another thing
  12. enzyme-catalyzed reactions
    • enzymes breack down reactents to make the energy barrier less this speeds up chemical reactions
    • each enyzme has its own reactent that it helps breack down this is dictated by the evelution of an enzyme
  13. enzyme-substrate complex
    • an enzyme is very selective  in the reactents it catalyzes  this selectivity is based on the enzymes ability to recognize a certian reactent molecule.
    • a substarit is the reactent that the enzyme breacks down
  14. enzyme shape
    an enzymes shape is based off of what substrate it breacks down it has an active site where the substrait can fit into to be broken down
  15. factors affecting reactions: activation energy
    • for a chemical reqaction to begin the reactent molicules bust be broken down
    • the prossess of breaking down requires activation energy that is pulled form there surrondings an enzyme will lessen the activation energy
  16. temperature
    temperature is offten caused by energy being burned which explains why a cars engine gets hot or our bodys get hot
  17. concentration
    is where there is a sertin amount of something in an area and typicaly it will move to an aria where there is less of it by gradients
  18. pH
    • this level tells how acidic something is 7 is nutreal this is a scale from 0 to 14, 0 being the most acedic 14 most basic
    • pH stands for potencheal hydrogen and refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions
  19. inhibition (competitive vs noncompetitive)
    • competitive inhibitor takes the place of the subsright 
    • non competitive inhibitors change the shape of the enzime by incerting somewhere els 
    • they are substrait inpersoners that eather pluginto an active site or bide to the enzyme at a romote site
  20. Balanced equation of photo sythisis
    6CO+ 6H2 O = CH12 O+6O2
  21. light dependent vs light independent reactions (required & produced)
    light dependant reactions can only be done when there is light for the plant they need Light H2O, chlorophil, ADP and NADP : produces ATP, NADPH, and O2

    light independent reactions theas are reactions that do not need the sun they do require what is made by the light dependaent reactions (ATP and NADPH) Require s ATP, NADPH and CO2 produces glucose and energy rich compounds
  22. ATP
    adenosine try phosphate a molicule composed of  adenosine and tree phosphate groups the main sorce of enrgy for a cell ATP can be broken into ADP adenosine diphospate and a free phosphate this reaction relaeses energy that can be used for cellular work
  23. NADPH
    this is an electron carrier in photosythisis
  24. leaf
    cuticle ( a waxy coating on the surface of the stmes), epidermis(outer layer of the leaf), spongey(top) & palisade(bottom) mesophyll ( most of photo sythisis is done here),veins( transprotate water and nutreants), phloem ( a part of the plants vascular system that convays sugars, nutreants and hormones thoughout the plant), xylem (provides support and convays water and inorganic nutreants from the roots to the rest of the plant), stoma (little openings in the leaf), guard cells (control the stomas)
  25. photophosphorylation
    if the leaf has a fixed carbon it can make everything els it needs this is getting a carbon fixed
  26. Calvin cycle
    light independant reation takes a 5 carbon compund and makes it into a 6 carbon compund by takeing carbon from the air makes this into two 3 carbon compunds than uses evergy from an ATP and a NADPH to convert each three carbon sugar molicules into three carbon sugar G3P for every three moliculse of CO2 that enter the cycle the output is one G3P the other G3P continue the sycle by useing energy from ATP to make the 5 carbon compund (RuMP)
  27. PGAL
    this is a biulding block for a 6 carbon shugar
  28. Balanced equation for aerobic cell resperation
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
  29. oxidation vs reduction reactions (LEO says GER)
    • oxidation loss of electrons (LEO)
    • Reductions reactions gain electrons (GER)
  30. glycolysis (required & produced)
    • this is the first step that makes 4 ATP from 2 ATP
    •  Needs ATP, NAD, ADP and glucose
    • Produces pruvic acid ATP (gain of only 2) and NADH
  31. Krebs cycle (required & produced)
    • needed pyrubic acid and NAD
    • produced CO2 NADH and acteil CoA
  32. ETS (required & produced),
    • produces the most ATP in this part but needs oxygen to do it
    • needed ADP NADH and FEDH
    • producesd NAD FAD and ATP about 34 made here
  33. electron acceptors
    NAD and the FAD (without electrons) or the NADH and the FADH (with electrons)
  34. pyruvic acid
    is the feul that remains after glycolisis that is not quite ready for the citric cycel
  35. ATP yield from glucose
    the totla ATP that is made from glucose is 38
  36. Anaerobic respiration
    • is done without oxygen and offten causes fermentation of eather lactic acid in our mucels or fermentaion of alcohol 
    • needed glucose, NAD, NADH and ADP
    • produced lactic acid (or alcolol) NADH NAD and ATP
  37. fermentation
    havest of food energy
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bio 101 test 2
2013-03-05 08:34:52
bio Dr Ashly quiz

Bio with ashly quiz 2
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