response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning
What is an unconditioned stimulus?
stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without prior learning
What is a conditioned stimulus?
stimulus that is repeated and paired with an unconditioned stimulus and becomes associated with the conditioned response
What is a conditioned response?
A learned response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of repeated pairing with the unconditioned stimulus
What is Higher Order Conditioning?
Conditioned stimuli that are linked together to form a series of signals
What is extinction?
weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response
What is spontaneous recovery?
reappearance of an extinguished response when reexposed to the stimulus following a rest period
What is generalization?
making the conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original
What is discrimination?
Distinguishing between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response only occurs to the original conditioned stimuli
What does drug use have to do with conditioning?
People that are addicted to drugs often associate places, people, streets, and other things with it making it easier to relapse once you have stopped
What does advertising have to do with conditioning?
When a neutral product is shown is a place that or people that many people like, eventually they will grow to like the product
How powerful is conditioning?
Extremely powerful, some medicines suppress the immune system and once paired with a sweet water rats in a lab experiment died drinking nothing but the sweet water because their immune system paired it with being deactivated
What are the factors that influence Classical Conditioning?
1. How reliably the conditioned stimulus predicts the unconditioned stimulus
2. Number of pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus
3. Intensity of unconditioned stimulus
4. Amount of time elapsed between conditioned and unconditioned stimulus
What is Trial and Error Learning?
learning that occurs when a response is associated with a successful solution after a number of unsuccessful responses
What is the Law of Effect?
consequence of a response will determine the tendency to respond in the same way in the future
What is operant Conditioning?
frequency of voluntary behavior changes because of consequences produced.
What is a reinforcer?
anything that follows a response that strengthens it or increases the chance it will occur.
What is shaping?
gradually molding of behavior by reinforcing any movement in the right direction.
What are successive approximations?
series of steps each of which is more similar to the final desired outcome.
What is reinforcement?
any events that follow a response and strengthen or increases the probability that the response will be repeated
What is positive reinforcement?
Anything that is given to increase the probability of it being repeated
What is negative reinforcement?
Termination of an unpleasant condition after a response
What is a primary reinforcer?
A reinforcer that fulfills our basic needs for survival and does not depend on learning
What is a Secondary reinforcer?
Learned through association of other reinforcers
What are the four different ways of reinforcement?
Fixed Interval Schedule
Variable Interval Schedule
With the ways of reinforcement, what is fixed ratio?
Reinforcement given after a fixed number of correct responses
With the ways of reinforcement, what is a variable ratio?
Reinforcement given after a varying number of correct responses, slot machine
With the ways of reinforcement, what is a fixed interval schedule?
Reinforcement given after a specific time interval, salary workers
With the ways of reinforcement, what is a variable interval schedule?
reinforcement given after the first response that follows a varying amount of time
What is the partial reinforcement effect?
the greater resistance to extinction that occurs when a portion of the correct response are reinforced. Parents giving in to a whiny baby
What are the three factors that influence operant conditioning?
1. Magnitude of reinforcement
2. The immediacy of reinforcement
3. The motivation of the learner
What is punishment?
The removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus
What is positive punishment?
behavior decreases from an added consequence, spanking
What is negative punishment?
behavior decreases from removing a consequence, Taking something away
What are the disadvantages of punishment?
May not extinguish behavior
Indicates that a behavior is unacceptable but does not help people develop more appropriate behavior
What is escape learning?
learning to perform a behavior because it prevents or terminates an aversive event
What is avoidance learning?
learning to avoid events or conditions associated with aversive consequences
What is learned helplessness?
A passive resignation to aversive conditions learned through repeated exposure to inescapable aversive events
What is instinctual drift?
Animals eventually resume instinctual behavior
What is biofeedback?
Use of equipment to give people feedback about phsiological processes so they can learn to exercize control over them
What is behavior modification?
changing behavior through a systematic program based on the learning principles of classical, operant, or observational learning
What is a Token economy?
Vouchers are given to people when they exhibit good behaviors, but behavior may stop when tokens are not given
What is Time Out?
misbehaving child is removed from all positive reinforcement to extinguish unwanted behavior
What is latent Learning?
occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not shown until the person is motivated to do so.
What are cognitive Maps?
Mental representation of a spatial arrangement
What is Observational learning?
Observing behavior of others and consequences of it
What is modeling?
Attempting to copy another persons behavior
What is a model?
A person who we are attempting to imitate
What is the elicitation effect?
Showing a behavior similar to shown by a model in a different situation
What is the disinhibitory effect?
Doing a previously suppressed behavior because a model does so without punishment
What is the inhibitory effect?
suppressing behavior because a model does so and is punished
What did Bandura find out when he showed an older person being aggressive to a BOBO doll?
That if the children watched it and were put it the same situation that they would do the same thing.