Psychology Ch. 5

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  1. What is a stimulus?
    a response to an event or object in environment
  2. What is Classical Conditioning?
    learning to associate on stimulus to another
  3. What is a reflex?
    an involuntary response
  4. What is a conditional reflex?
    learned involuntary responses
  5. What is an unconditioned response?
    response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning
  6. What is an unconditioned stimulus?
    stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without prior learning
  7. What is a conditioned stimulus?
    stimulus that is repeated and paired with an unconditioned stimulus and becomes associated with the conditioned response
  8. What is a conditioned response?
    A learned response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of repeated pairing with the unconditioned stimulus
  9. What is Higher Order Conditioning?
    Conditioned stimuli that are linked together to form a series of signals
  10. What is extinction?
    weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response
  11. What is spontaneous recovery?
    reappearance of an extinguished response when reexposed to the stimulus following a rest period
  12. What is generalization?
    making the conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original
  13. What is discrimination?
    Distinguishing between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response only occurs to the original conditioned stimuli
  14. What does drug use have to do with conditioning?
    People that are addicted to drugs often associate places, people, streets, and other things with it making it easier to relapse once you have stopped
  15. What does advertising have to do with conditioning?
    When a neutral product is shown is a place that or people that many people like, eventually they will grow to like the product
  16. How powerful is conditioning?
    Extremely powerful, some medicines suppress the immune system and once paired with a sweet water rats in a lab experiment died drinking nothing but the sweet water because their immune system paired it with being deactivated
  17. What are the factors that influence Classical Conditioning?
    • 1.  How reliably the conditioned stimulus predicts the unconditioned stimulus
    • 2.  Number of pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus
    • 3.  Intensity of unconditioned stimulus
    • 4.  Amount of time elapsed between conditioned and unconditioned stimulus
  18. What is Trial and Error Learning?
    learning that occurs when a response is associated with a successful solution after a number of unsuccessful responses
  19. What is the Law of Effect?
    consequence of a response will determine the tendency to respond in the same way in the future
  20. What is operant Conditioning?
    frequency of voluntary behavior changes because of consequences produced.
  21. What is a reinforcer?
    anything that follows a response that strengthens it or increases the chance it will occur.
  22. What is shaping?
    gradually molding of behavior by reinforcing any movement in the right direction.
  23. What are successive approximations?
    series of steps each of which is more similar to the final desired outcome.
  24. What is reinforcement?
    any events that follow a response and strengthen or increases the probability that the response will be repeated
  25. What is positive reinforcement?
    Anything that is given to increase the probability of it being repeated
  26. What is negative reinforcement?
    Termination of an unpleasant condition after a response
  27. What is a primary reinforcer?
    A reinforcer that fulfills our basic needs for survival and does not depend on learning
  28. What is a Secondary reinforcer?
    Learned through association of other reinforcers
  29. What are the four different ways of reinforcement?
    • Fixed Ratio
    • Variable Ratio
    • Fixed Interval Schedule
    • Variable Interval Schedule
  30. With the ways of reinforcement, what is fixed ratio?
    Reinforcement given after a fixed number of correct responses
  31. With the ways of reinforcement, what is a variable ratio?
    Reinforcement given after a varying number of correct responses, slot machine
  32. With the ways of reinforcement, what is a fixed interval schedule?
    Reinforcement given after a specific time interval, salary workers
  33. With the ways of reinforcement, what is a variable interval schedule?
    reinforcement given after the first response that follows a varying amount of time
  34. What is the partial reinforcement effect?
    the greater resistance to extinction that occurs when a portion of the correct response are reinforced.  Parents giving in to a whiny baby
  35. What are the three factors that influence operant conditioning?
    • 1.  Magnitude of reinforcement
    • 2.  The immediacy of reinforcement
    • 3.  The motivation of the learner
  36. What is punishment?
    The removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus
  37. What is positive punishment?
    behavior decreases from an added consequence, spanking
  38. What is negative punishment?
    behavior decreases from removing a consequence, Taking something away
  39. What are the disadvantages of punishment?
    • May not extinguish behavior
    • Indicates that a behavior is unacceptable but does not help people develop more appropriate behavior
  40. What is escape learning?
    learning to perform a behavior because it  prevents or terminates an aversive event
  41. What is avoidance learning?
    learning to avoid events or conditions associated with aversive consequences
  42. What is learned helplessness?
    A passive resignation to aversive conditions learned through repeated exposure to inescapable aversive events
  43. What is instinctual drift?
    Animals eventually resume instinctual behavior
  44. What is biofeedback?
    Use of equipment to give people feedback about phsiological processes so they can learn to exercize control over them
  45. What is behavior modification?
    changing behavior through a systematic program based on the learning principles of classical, operant, or observational learning
  46. What is a Token economy?
    Vouchers are given to people when they exhibit good behaviors, but behavior may stop when tokens are not given
  47. What is Time Out?
    misbehaving child is removed from all positive reinforcement to extinguish unwanted behavior
  48. What is latent Learning?
    occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not shown until the person is motivated to do so.
  49. What are cognitive Maps?
    Mental representation of a spatial arrangement
  50. What is Observational learning?
    Observing behavior of others and consequences of it
  51. What is modeling?
    Attempting to copy another persons behavior
  52. What is a model?
    A person who we are attempting to imitate
  53. What is the elicitation effect?
    Showing a behavior similar to shown by a model in a different situation
  54. What is the disinhibitory effect?
    Doing a previously suppressed behavior because a model does so without punishment
  55. What is the inhibitory effect?
    suppressing behavior because a model does so and is punished
  56. What did Bandura find out when he showed an older person being aggressive to a BOBO doll?
    That if the children watched it and were put it the same situation that they would do the same thing.
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Psychology Ch. 5
2013-03-05 17:49:43

Psychology Ch. 5
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