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What is the purpose of a network?
The purpose of a network is to allow a # of systems to share resources Eg; internet connection, printers, files
What is a switch?
A switch acts as a connection point for all systems on a small network.
What is the purpose of a switch?
The purpose of a switch is to transfer data that has been sent from a station to the switch to another station.
What is a L.A.N.
Lan is a local area network where all devices are physically located in close proximity. Is called a peer to peer network.
What is the name of a LAN network with all stations connected to a central server?
If there is a central server that workstations connect to it is called a client server network
What is a WAN?
Wide Area Network; a network where there is a large distance between devices.
What are some WAN devices?
Routers and telecommunication links
Explain the Bus Topology
The Bus Topology consists of one main cable "Trunk" that all systems connect to. There are Terminators at the end to prevent data from bouncing back and colliding with other data on the cable. Data travels to the trunk then in both directions but only is only processed by intended station.
What are the draw backs of bus topology
If there is a break in the cable the entire network fails because there is no termination at one end and data will collide.
What is the ring topology?
The ring topology consists of all systems or "nodes" connected with one cable in a ring regenerating data. Has one cable so if there is a break the entire network is down.
What are ways to improve the ring topology?
You can add another trunk so if the primary ring fails a 2nd will carry the data.
What is the star topology?
The star topology involves a central device such as a switch to connect all systems. when data is transfered goes from that station A to the switch which sends data to the other station. *Popular today because a break in the cable only disables that system.
What is the hybrid topology or star-bus topology?
A hybrid topology uses a combination of the bus,ring and star topologies. A main trunk connects
What is a Topology?
A Topology is the layout of a network.
Coaxial Cable Facts
Coax has a copper core that carries data in the form of electrical signal. There are two variations thinnet and thicknet. Not very common in modern network topologies
1/4 inch thick also known as RG 58 it has a max length of 185 meters or 606 feet. It uses a Bnc connector. This is your basic cable wire from the tv. Has a transfer rate of 10Mbps
Aka Rg8 has a max length of 500M or 1640ft and is 1/2in thick. It uses a vampire tap connector
What are the types of Twisted-Pair Cabling?
The two types of twisted pair cabling are shielded twisted pair and unshielded twisted pair. The shielded has extra protection in the jacket.
What kind of connector does STP and UTP use? What is the max length? How many wires?
Stp uses a Rj-45 connector "ethernet cable" and has a max length of 100m or 328ft. The transfer rate is dependent upon the category of the cable.Has 8 wires twisted into four.
what kind of wiring and connector is a telephone wire?
Telephones use twisted pair cabling but there are 4 wires compared to 8 found on networking cable and uses a RJ-11 connector
What are the the categories of UTP cables? What do they support and their transfer rate?
- Cat1: Voice only:
- Cat2: Data: 4Mbps
- Cat3: Data:10Mbps
- Cat4: Data:16Mbps
- Cat5: Data:100Mbps
- cat6: Data:10 Gbps
What is the most relevent kind of twisted pair cabling?
The cabling you will see in todays network is cat 5e which has a transfer rate of 1Gbps and Cat 6 which sends data at 10Gbps
What is Fiber optics and what are the different types?
Fiber is a way of transmitting data thru the emission of light signals. Unlike coax's copper core this has glass core. The two types are single mode fiber and multimode fiber.
What isSingle Mode Fiber"SMF"
Smf is a way of sending data over a distance of up to 40Kilometers or 131,233 ft uses one direct light. Used in Wan networks to connect two lans
MMF sends data in multiple rays of light has a max distance of 2KM or 6,561ft with each ray reflecting at different angles.
What kind of connectors do fiber use?
Fiber optics use either a SC, ST, or LC connector
What is a straight through cable?
Is a normal twisted pair network cable that connects a system to a switch. Each cable retains its position for exe the 3rd wire on one end is the 3rd on the other end.
What are the important pins on Rj-45
The important pins are 1,2,3,6. 1&@ are transmit pins (TX) and 3&6 are receiving pins(RX) and are either +or-and have different voltage. This is why proper wiring is important
What do Straight through cables connect?
They connect dissimilar devices together. Exe to connect a system to a switch or router. One end needs to send and one needs to receive
What is aCrossover Cable
A crossover cable is used to connect similar devices. Exe one cpu to another or a switch to a switch.*If a straight through cable was used (TX) pins would be connected to (TX) pins on the other system so they wouldnt be able to communicate. "Allows connection without a hub or switch" Either red or yellow in color!
What is a rollover cable or "console cable"
Is used to connect the serial port on your system to a router or switch so you can configure the router or switch is used for management purpose. its flat and wires change position from one end to the other. Ex wire 1 is wire 8 on other side.
How is data placed on the network
It is placed on the network via an access method.
What is an access method?
a program or a hardware mechanism that moves data between the computer and an outlying device such as a hard disk (or other form of storage)
What is CSMA/CD? How does it work
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection is a access method. It works by sensing if data is already on the wire and if clear sends the data.
What happens if Csma/cd sends data at the same time as another system?
The data will collide and be destroyed and will go through algorithems to resend data at a specific time.
What is Token Passing and how does it work?
Token passing is an access method that sends Tokens or "empty packets" over the network thousands of times per second once token reaches system it is filled with data and flagged as being used then is submitted back to network and to destinaton.
What are the advantages of Token Passing?
Token passing has its advantages because data cannot collide because you must have the token to send the data.
What is Csma/ca and how does it work?
Carrier sence multiple access/collision avoidance. it works by sensing to see if data is on the wire and if not sends a message letting everyone know that it is about to send data then sends it to avoid collision. Not popular today.
What is a network architecture?
A standard that defines how the network works in terms of how data is placed on the wire, cabling used, and the topology used.
How do you break down the name of network architectures?
100 base T
- 100=speed of network
- Base=Transmission type "baseband or broadband"
- T=Type of cable
What is 10base2? what is 10baseT
10Mbps baseband transmission 2 refers to the meters of the cable and coax thinnet has a max distance of 185m so it uses.
10Mbps Baseband connection Twisted pair cabling. 10Mbps= cat 3 tp cabling uses star topology
What are considered fast ethernet standards?
What is considered Gigabit Ethernet?
All networks which run at 100 Mbps, Uses CSMA/CD
They must transfer data at 1000Mbps(1Gb) and use star topology uses CSMA/CD access method.
What are the two popular forms of fast ethernet?
100BaseTX which is Cat 5 and 100Fx which is fiber optic cabling
What are Gigabit Ethernet Standards?
1000BaseCX-Uses coaxial cable to reach a max 25m
1000BaseLx-uses SMF optic to reach a max 3km or 9,842 ft/
1000BaseSx-Uses MMF cabling max 550M
1000BaseTx-The Gb ethernet reaches 1000Mbps uses cat5 instead of fiber. The difference between 100baseT and 1000BaseTX is that 100BaseT only uses 4 wires and the other uses all 8 wires.
10Gigabit Ethernet Standards
10GBaseLR-Uses Smf to reach up to 10km
10GBaseSR-Uses MMF optics 100m
10GBaseEr-Uses SMf optics 40km
**Lr=long range,sr=short range, er=extra long range
There is also a 10GB standard that uses cat 6 UTP its known as 10GBaseTX