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  1. linkage equilibrium
    random association between alleles at 2 lociĀ in a population

    chromosome frequencies will not change from generation to generation under HWE
  2. linkage disequilibrium
    chromosome frequencies will change from generation to generation under HWE

    • nonrandom statistical association between alleles at 2 loci
    • can be quantified
    • dont require physical linkage
  3. causes of linkage disequilibrium
    • genetic drift
    • selection for alleles ar different loci
    • population mixtures with different allele frequency
    • new mutation
  4. reduction of linkage disequilibrium
    • recombination in double heterozygotes
    • decays exponentially as function of c and time
  5. 2 ways selection as a cause of linkage disequilibrium
    • 1. selection favoring particulr 2 locus genotypes
    • 2. selection on a single locus makes linkage disequilibrium worse for a second locus
  6. linkage disequilibrium decreases with...
    distance between loci

    the closer the loci the higher the linkage disequilibrium due to genetic drift and becuase it takes recombination a while to get rid of them
  7. a new mutation can cause ...
    • 1.reduced diveristy in region surrounding selecting locus
    • 2. increased distance of linkage disequilibrium aroind selected locu
    • 3. halpotypes bearing the selected allele have lower diversity higher around linkage disequilibrium than haplotypes bearing older alleles
Card Set:
2013-03-04 23:32:54
Evolution BI445

Midterm 2 material
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