medlab part 1

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chelsearose91
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204974
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medlab part 1
Updated:
2013-03-04 19:03:39
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chemistry unit
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  1. chemistry is a department that uses?
    chemical analysis to monitor health and disease
  2. w
  3. at sample is usually used in chemistry?
    • serum/plasma most common
    • urine, CSF, other bodily fluids
  4. what are chemical levels used for?
    diagnose & treat diseases
  5. quantitative vs qualitative
    • quantitative- number
    • qualitative- pos/neg
  6. examples of a single test
    • glucose
    • cholesterol
  7. ex og groups of chem tests
    • lipids
    • electrolytes
  8. chem tests by organ systems such as?
    • liver
    • thyroid
    • renal function
  9. chem tests according to ins/Medicare grouping?
    • basic metabolic profile
    • comprehensive metabolic profile
  10. automated instruments are used in POL for?
    moderately complex testing
  11. reflectance photometry is
    the greater the amount of chemical the greater amount of light reflected off chemical pad where the reaction is occurring
  12. instruments, you need to know??
    • model #
    • serial #
    • company contact info
    • how to calibrate safely
    • how to operate it correctly
  13. calibration means it is?
    reliable & valid results
  14. standards are what?
    substances with an exact known value or concentration
  15. standards are used as?
    the liquid samples when calibrating an instrument
  16. you need to calibrate how many months?
    every 6 months
  17. quality control is used to insure what?
    reliable, accurate restuls
  18. what means to have an acceptable range of values?
    control
  19. what are the three levels of controls?
    • normal
    • abnormal low
    • abnormal high
  20. what do you document problems with quality controls
  21. where do you document problems with q.controls and how they were corrected?
    action log
  22. what will the qc not tell you?
    • if collected properly
    • processed properly
    • transported with proper conditions
  23. fasting is what?
    • only h20 for 12 hrs before blood is drawn
    • can take meds during 12 hrs unless if interferes w/ results
  24. when fasting what is another test usually best to get?
    • glucose
    • lipids
  25. does foot affect random draws of blood?
    no
  26. trough?
    draw before the dose
  27. peak?
    right after a dose is givin
  28. timed?
    certain # of hrs after a dose is given?
  29. postprandial test is?
    • usually glucose,
    • done after a meal
    • usually 2 hrs long (2 hr.p.p)
  30. cholesterol loo
    ks?
    white waxy fat
  31. cholesterol comes from 2 sources?
    • blood
    • foods you eat "diet"
  32. endogenous
    • made by liver,
    • genetics control this,
    • source of cholesterol
  33. exogenous
    • foods you eat
    • source of cholesterol
  34. if you have elevated cholesterol you, you have?
    • risk of coronary heart disease
    • white waxy fat lines the walls of your arteries
    • "atherosclerosis"
  35. atherosclerosis
    • elevated cholesterol
    • white waxy fat lines walls of arteries
  36. the total cholesterol is made up of?
    • HDL (high density lipoproteins)
    • LDL (low density lipoproteins)
  37. HDL is?
    • good cholesterol
    • takes cholesterol from tissues to liver to be broken down
    • "higher the better"
  38. LDL is?
    • bad cholesterol
    • sticks to blood vessel walls
    • "lower the better"
  39. 4 tests in a lipid profile?
    • total cholesterol
    • HDL
    • LDL
    • triglyercides
  40. 30-200 is normal range for what?
    total cholesterol
  41. 200-239 is borderline high risk of what test?
    total cholesterol
  42. > 240 is high risk for CHD for what test?
    total cholesterol
  43. 40-60  normal range for what test?
    HDL
  44. >60 is ever better than normal range for what test?
    HDL "higher the better"
  45. <40 is increased risk for CHD for what test?
    • HDL
    • "higher the better"
  46. <130 is normal range for what test?
    • LDL
    • "lower the better"
  47. >130 if increased risk for CHD for what test?
    • LDL
    • "lower the better"
  48. what are the causes of higher total cholesterol?
    • atherosclerosis/cardo vascular disease
    • hypothryoidism
    • obstructive jaundice
    • nephrosis
  49. if low total cholesterol (<30) is caused by?
    • malabsorption
    • anemia
    • hyperthyroidism
    • liver disease
  50. cholesterol testing is ?
    • part of a lipid profile
    • 12 hr fasting is needed
  51. triglycerides is the main form of what storage?
    lipid profile
  52. triglycerides makes up what % of fat?
    95% of fat (adipose tissue)
  53. using triglyceride along with cholesterol you can determine the risk for what disease?
    artherosclerosis
  54. <150 is normal range for what test?
    triglyceride
  55. triglyceride is affected by what?
    foods
  56. inc. triglyercide causes plasma/serum to appear like what?
    milky "white"
  57. lipemic is what inc. triglyceride (the plasma/serum) appears what?
    milky white
  58. >150  caused increased risk for atherosclerosis along with what?
    • obesity
    • inc. cholesterol
  59. >150 of trig. caused by what?
    • liver/kidney disease
    • hypothyroidism
    • pancreatitis
    • poorly controlled diabetes
  60. <150 of trig. ic caused by
    • hyperthryoidism
    • malnutrition
  61. two tests of kidney functions are?
    • BUN
    • CREATINE
  62. BUN (blood urea nitrogen) is what?
    amino acids converted to urea and filtered from the blood in the glomerulus
  63. in the BUN what happens when glomeruli isn't functioning what happens?
    blood levels of urea buildup
  64. uremia is what?
    blood in urea

    too high= need of dialysis
  65. 7-25 is normal range for what?
    BUN

    sample- random plasma/serum
  66. >25 is high for what test?
    BUN
  67. increased bun test results (>25) may due to?
    • high protein diet
    • steroids
    • dehydration
    • kidney disease/failure
    • kidney obstruction (tumor, kidney stone)
  68. what elevated level will indicate if you have a kidney stone or tumor?
    • bun
    • <25
  69. <7 is "low" for what test?
    bun
  70. low bun test results (<7) can be due to?
    • starvation
    • pregnancy
    • low protein diet
    • liver failure
    • impaired absorption of amino acids that are converted to urea
  71. creatine is a waster product of creatine phosphate that is stored in what and used for what?
    • muscle
    • used for energy
  72. .6-1.5 is normal range for what test?
    creatine
  73. what sample is used for creatinine?
    • random plasma/serum
    • urine
    • 24 hr urine
  74. >1.5 is high for what test?
    creatinine
  75. <.6 is low for what test?
    creatinine
  76. high testing for creatinine (>1.5) can be due to?
    • muscle disease
    • renal disease
    • water imbalance
    • shock
    • nephritis
    • obstruction like stone or tumor
  77. <.6 is low for creatinine and can be caused by what?
    muscular dystrophy (muscle wasting disease)

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