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chemistry is a department that uses?
chemical analysis to monitor health and disease
at sample is usually used in chemistry?
- serum/plasma most common
- urine, CSF, other bodily fluids
what are chemical levels used for?
diagnose & treat diseases
quantitative vs qualitative
- quantitative- number
- qualitative- pos/neg
examples of a single test
ex og groups of chem tests
chem tests by organ systems such as?
- renal function
chem tests according to ins/Medicare grouping?
- basic metabolic profile
- comprehensive metabolic profile
automated instruments are used in POL for?
moderately complex testing
reflectance photometry is
the greater the amount of chemical the greater amount of light reflected off chemical pad where the reaction is occurring
instruments, you need to know??
- model #
- serial #
- company contact info
- how to calibrate safely
- how to operate it correctly
calibration means it is?
reliable & valid results
standards are what?
substances with an exact known value or concentration
standards are used as?
the liquid samples when calibrating an instrument
you need to calibrate how many months?
every 6 months
quality control is used to insure what?
reliable, accurate restuls
what means to have an acceptable range of values?
what are the three levels of controls?
- abnormal low
- abnormal high
what do you document problems with quality controls
where do you document problems with q.controls and how they were corrected?
what will the qc not tell you?
- if collected properly
- processed properly
- transported with proper conditions
fasting is what?
- only h20 for 12 hrs before blood is drawn
- can take meds during 12 hrs unless if interferes w/ results
when fasting what is another test usually best to get?
does foot affect random draws of blood?
draw before the dose
right after a dose is givin
certain # of hrs after a dose is given?
postprandial test is?
- usually glucose,
- done after a meal
- usually 2 hrs long (2 hr.p.p)
white waxy fat
cholesterol comes from 2 sources?
- foods you eat "diet"
- made by liver,
- genetics control this,
- source of cholesterol
- foods you eat
- source of cholesterol
if you have elevated cholesterol you, you have?
- risk of coronary heart disease
- white waxy fat lines the walls of your arteries
- elevated cholesterol
- white waxy fat lines walls of arteries
the total cholesterol is made up of?
- HDL (high density lipoproteins)
- LDL (low density lipoproteins)
- good cholesterol
- takes cholesterol from tissues to liver to be broken down
- "higher the better"
- bad cholesterol
- sticks to blood vessel walls
- "lower the better"
4 tests in a lipid profile?
- total cholesterol
30-200 is normal range for what?
200-239 is borderline high risk of what test?
> 240 is high risk for CHD for what test?
40-60 normal range for what test?
>60 is ever better than normal range for what test?
HDL "higher the better"
<40 is increased risk for CHD for what test?
<130 is normal range for what test?
>130 if increased risk for CHD for what test?
what are the causes of higher total cholesterol?
- atherosclerosis/cardo vascular disease
- obstructive jaundice
if low total cholesterol (<30) is caused by?
- liver disease
cholesterol testing is ?
- part of a lipid profile
- 12 hr fasting is needed
triglycerides is the main form of what storage?
triglycerides makes up what % of fat?
95% of fat (adipose tissue)
using triglyceride along with cholesterol you can determine the risk for what disease?
<150 is normal range for what test?
triglyceride is affected by what?
inc. triglyercide causes plasma/serum to appear like what?
lipemic is what inc. triglyceride (the plasma/serum) appears what?
>150 caused increased risk for atherosclerosis along with what?
>150 of trig. caused by what?
- liver/kidney disease
- poorly controlled diabetes
<150 of trig. ic caused by
two tests of kidney functions are?
BUN (blood urea nitrogen) is what?
amino acids converted to urea and filtered from the blood in the glomerulus
in the BUN what happens when glomeruli isn't functioning what happens?
blood levels of urea buildup
uremia is what?
blood in urea
too high= need of dialysis
7-25 is normal range for what?
sample- random plasma/serum
>25 is high for what test?
increased bun test results (>25) may due to?
- high protein diet
- kidney disease/failure
- kidney obstruction (tumor, kidney stone)
what elevated level will indicate if you have a kidney stone or tumor?
<7 is "low" for what test?
low bun test results (<7) can be due to?
- low protein diet
- liver failure
- impaired absorption of amino acids that are converted to urea
creatine is a waster product of creatine phosphate that is stored in what and used for what?
.6-1.5 is normal range for what test?
what sample is used for creatinine?
- random plasma/serum
- 24 hr urine
>1.5 is high for what test?
<.6 is low for what test?
high testing for creatinine (>1.5) can be due to?
- muscle disease
- renal disease
- water imbalance
- obstruction like stone or tumor
<.6 is low for creatinine and can be caused by what?
muscular dystrophy (muscle wasting disease)