Science Chapter 18

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Science Chapter 18
2013-03-04 18:51:34
Classification Study Guide

Science Ch 18 Classifications
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  1. Taxonomy
    The science of naming and classifying organisms
  2. define binomial nomenclature
    when each species is assigned a two part scientific name
  3. what are 2 reasons that scientific names, instead of common names, help scientist to communicate about organisms
    • 1.  because common names are sometimes confusing and its easier to understand scientific names
    • 2.  animals can have multiple names and two organisms can have the same name
  4. what are the 7 levels of classification from largest to smallest?
    • Kingdom
    • phylum
    • class
    • order
    • family
    • genus
    • species
  5. what is the relationship between evolution and taxonomy?
    taxonomy is based on evolutionary relationships
  6. chadogram - be able to draw/label a diagram
    check drawing
  7. dichotomous Key - define, limitations and use one to identify and object
    a method to classify and identify and unknown organism
  8. Domain: Bacteria
    • Kingdom: Eubacteria
    • number of cells: single cell
    • cell structures: no nucleus, cell wall peptidoglycan
    • Mode of nutrition: autotroph or heterotroph
  9. Domain: Archaea
    • Kingdom: archaebacteria
    • Number of cells: 1 cell
    • Cell structures: nonucleus, cell walls
    • mode of nutrition: autotroph or heterotroph
  10. Domain: Eukarya(nucleus)
    • kingdom:animalia
    • number of cells: multi-cellular
    • cell structures:nucleus - no cell wall
    • mode of nutrition: heterotroph
  11. Domain: Eukarya
    • Kingdom: Fungi
    • number of cells:multi-cellular few single cell
    • cell structures:nucleus - cell wall of chitin
    • Mode of nutrition:heterotroph
  12. domain: Eukarya
    • Kingdom:plantae
    • Number of Cells:multi-cellular
    • cell structures:cell walls of cellulose - chloroplasts
    • mode of nutrition:autotroph
  13. Domain: Eukarya
    • Kingdom:protista
    • Number of Cells:unicellular
    • cell structures:cell walls of cellulose - chloroplasts
    • mode of nutrition:autotroph or heterotroph
  14. In 1730s __________ developed a naming system called _________ ____________.
    • Carolous Linnaeus
    • binomial nomenclature
  15. Binomial nomenclature - each species is assigned ____ _____ scientific name

    First part of the name refers to the ______

    second part of the name is ______ to each _______


    unique, species
  16. just as a genus is a group of similar species, a _______ is a group of similar genera.
  17. an ______ is a group of similar families
  18. a ______ is a group of similar orders
  19. a ______ is a group of similar classes
  20. a ______ is a group of similar phyla
  21. what is the science of naming and grouping organisms called
  22. modern systematists try to group organism based on ________
  23. what is the correct way to write scientific names in the binomial nomenclature system
    genus with capital letter first, then species with lower case letter
  24. the goal of systematics is to organize living things into groups called _______, that have biological meaning.
  25. the largest taxonomic category in the Linnaean syustem of classification is the _________ while the smallest is the ________species

  26. similar classes are grouped into a(n) ________ and similar orders are grouped into a(n) _________
    • phylum
    • class
  27. the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called ____________
  28. classification based on evolutionary relationships is called?
    phylogenetic systematics
  29. The ______ the ______  the further back in time all of its msmbers shared a ____________  __________
    larger, taxon

    common ancestor
  30. a clade is a group of species that includes a _________ and all ________ of that ancestor
    single common ancestor

  31. a _________ must include all species that are descended from a common ancestor and cannot include any species that _________ from that common ancestor

    are different
  32. a ______ is a diagram that shows how species and higher taxa are related to each other.
  33. a cladogram shows how evolutionary lines or lineages branched off from ______ _______.
    COMMON ancestors
  34. in a cladogram, the place wehter the ancestral lineage splits is called a ______
  35. nodes represent the point where the new lineages last shared a ______ ________
    common ancestor
  36. the bottom of teh diagram or the root represents the ______ _______ shared by all of the organisms on the _________
    common ancestor

  37. all organisms have _______
  38. how did Darwin's theory of evolution change the way biologist thought about classification categories
    • before was based on physical appearance
    • after based on relationships
  39. which group of organisms would have the most recent common ancestor; members of the clade corresponding to a genus opr the members of a clade corresponding to an order? Explain your answer
    the genus because they are more closely related to each other
  40. all species descended from a(n) _______ are part of a monophyletic group
  41. ______ is the study of how living things and extinct organisms are related to one another
  42. a clade includes a common ancestor and all of its descendants, living or _______
  43. a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms is called a(n) _________ ________
    phylogenic systematics
  44. the place where the ancestral lineage splits on a cladogram is called a fork or a(n) ________.
  45. characteristics shared by members of a clade and only by members of that clade are called _________