A recessive gene is expressed when paired with another recessive gene
What is Heterozygous ?
A chromosome pair consisiting of one recessive and one dominant gene
What is Homozygous ?
A chromosome pair consisting of either 2 dominant or 2 recessive genes
What is Inbreeding ?
The breeding of closely related offspring
Allows the stongest traits come out
Products of inbreadding often show traits that are much better or much worse than their parents
What is Line-Breeding ?
The breeding of individuals that are more distantly related, common ancestors in their pedigree for 4 or 5 generations
WIll have similar characteristics, but less dangerous than inbreeding
What is Out-Cross breeding ?
The breeding of individuals with no common ancestors in the last 4 or 5 generations
Used to bring hybrid vigour to progeny
What is Spontaneous Ovulator ?
The release of an ovum is determined by stimuli from inside the body such as hormones. ex rats, mice, sheep
What are ways to confirm pregnancy in feline and canines (4)
Blood Test: must be 30-35 days into pregnancy
Ultrasound: can readily confirm a pregnancy at approx. 22 to 28 days of pregnancy
Radiographs: at approx. 45 days of pregnancy, skeletons will be mineralized and visible on xray
Palpation: feel the developing fetuses between 26 and 35 days
What are the signs of impending labour for canines ?
dogs prefer social contact and an area in which to whelp
temperature drops 6-24 hrs pripor to parturition
filling of teats with milk
occasional vaginal discharge
What are the signs of impending labour for felines ?
prefer solitude and seek an enclosed nesting area
filing of teats with milk
occasional vaginal discharge
What happens in the first stage of labour and delivery ?
Usually lasts 6-12 hrs
Chracterized by restlesness..pacing, rollin, circuling. Excessive grooming of abdomen and genitlas, panting ,shivering
Usually quiet during delivery
Uterine contractions begin
What happens in the Second stage of labour and delivery ?
Involves uterine contractions of increasing frequency and strength
Delivery of all the neonates is usually within 2-24hrs
"active stage" of labour
small greenish sav of fluid will protrude from the vulva before the fetuses are expelled
What happens in the Third stage of labour and delivery ?
Follows each delivery and can last up to 4 hrs between births
Placenta separates from uterus and is passed within 5-15 mins of the birth of each neonate (should be one for each neonate)
What are some emergency situations that may occur ? vet would need to be consulted
Prolonged gestation (70 days in cats, 64 days in dogs)
Abnormal vaginal discharge prior to or during delivery
Obvious malpresentation of neonate or neonate is in vaginal canal but not delivered within 10 mins of active labour
Mother is in obvious extreme distress and pain
What type of questions should you ask the client preparing for a birth emergency ?
What type of breed ?
How many puppies/kittens one already born ?
How long between the puppies/kittens
When was the first pup/kitten born ?
How old is the queen/bitch ?
Is this their first litter ? if not how did the previous litter go ?
What is Eclampsia ?
"Milk Fever" Trouble supporting the calcium demands of lactation resulting in hypocalcemia.
Symptoms typically develop during peak lactation
What are the Symptoms of Eclampsia ?
What can Eclampsia progress to ?
Inability to stand
What is Mastitis ?
Inflammation of the mammary glands. Normal nursing glands are soft and enlarged. Diseased glands are red, hard and painful and the mother will often discourage nursing. Hot packing and milking the glands help relieve pressure
What is Pseudo Pregnancy ?
False pregnancy. A non pregnant female exhibits the maternal behaviour and physical sign commonly associated with pregnancy.
What are maternal symptoms of Pseudopregnancy ?
nesting and adoption of inanimate objects or other animals
What are physical symptoms of pseudopregnancy ?
What is Retention of fetal tissue/placenta ?
if a queen or bitch fails to pass placental or fetal tissue she can develop an infection
What are the symptoms of Retention of fetal tissue/placenta ?
Concerns of Vaginal bleeding ?
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is not normal, and is suggestive of litter abortion. If happens later in pregnancy , may be delivering the litter prematurely
Post partum expectations: Vaginal discharge..
normal for up to 3 weeks post partum. typically black or reddish in colour
Post partum expectations: umbilical cord . . .
mother stretches and severs the cord with her teeth and then consumes the majority of the umbilical cord and placenta.
Stump should be checked daily
Stump should dry out
Post partum expectations : Nursing. . .
most puppies + kittens willl begin nursing within 1-2 hrs of birth.
What is Colostrum ?
first milk. Needs to be ingested within 24 hrs of birht in order to be absorbed into the gut. It contains antibodies that help protect the neonate from disease.
Post partum expectations: Environment . . .
Bitch and queen provide the warmth that kittens and puppies need to sruvive, ensure area is free from drafts as neonates cannot regulate their own body temperature for first 2 weeks of life.
Post partum expectations: Human interaction...
Handle all puppies and kittens equally on a daily basis. Necessary for the normal socialization process. Do not forget about the mother.
What are the 5 grooming basics ?
Brushing/combing , trimming
Bathing + drying
Ear + eye care
Explain brushing/combing, trimming
Brushing is the most important part of the grooming routine.
Should be done before the bath.
Brushing remvoes dust, dirt, dead hair
Work from rear to the front.
What are the different types of brushes ?
Slicker brush: Removes dead hair. Recommended for long or dense coats, tangles or mats
Pin Brush: works well on long flowing hair. Tips of pins are rounded and smooth
Traditional bristle brush: polishes and adds shine to the coat
Hound glove: has the bristles of a slicker embded into a glove or mit
Rubber Grooming mit: adds polish + shine once the dead hair is removed, shorthaired dogs
Undercoat Rake: removes dead undercoat
What are some different kinds of combs ?
What are the Clipper aids ?
Clipper: maybe have blades that need to be screwed on, or snapped on
Clipper blades: many varieties based on function. Larger blade = shorter length
Types of Scissors
Scissors: variety of lengths, curved or straight
Thinning shears: used to blend and remove unwanted hair without leaving cut marks. Thin the coat
What are the different types of demating methods ?
Comb Method: Cut hair between mat and comb. comb slides between mat + skin
Scissor debuldking method: place one blade through the base of mat, cut UP + AWAY from skin
Scissor removal method: scissors through a thin layer of hair near base of mat, slowly cut the hair
Why cant you use human shampoos on animals ?
The pH of an animals coat is different than a human. You can dry your pets coat out by using human brands.
What are the types of shampoos ?
Aloe + Oatmeal
Flea + Tick shampoo
What are the types of dryers ?
Cage dryers: cage mounted, partially drys coat
Floor dryer: stronger air current than cage dryer
Wall dryer: provides stronger air current than the floor dryer
What are the types of nail trimmers ?
Guillotine: even cut to nail
Nail grinder/drummel: smoothes out rough edges after trimming