Chapter 26 Endocrine & Nervous Systems
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How many glands are included in the Endocrine subsection out of nine glands?
Four glands: thyroid, parathyroid, thymus & adrenal
Which subsections are the remaining five glands located?
- pituitary & pineal gland codes-Nervous System
- pancreas gland codes-Digestive System
- ovaries & testes gland codes-Female or Male Genital System (respectively)
What is the thyroid gland composed of?
Thyroid gland is composed of a right & left lobe on either side of the trachea, just below a large piece of cartilage (thyroid cartilage).
What are two of the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland & how much does the thyroid gland produce?
The thyroid gland produces 20% of T3 (triiodothyronine) & 80% of T4 (thyroxine).
What are T3 & T4 necessary to maintain?
They are necessary to maintain the normal level of metabolism in the cells of the body.
What tests assess the levels of hormones produced by the thyroid gland?
Thyroid Function Tests
Where are the parathyroid glands located & what is their function?
The parathyroid glands are four small oval bodies located on the dorsal aspect (back) of the thyroid gland which secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH). This hormone mobilizes calcium from bones into the bloodstream, which is necessary for the proper functioning of body tissues, especially muscles.
Where are the adrenal glands located & what are their functions?
The adrenal glands (suprarenal) are two small glands located one on top of each kidney. They are made of of two parts each, the cortex (outer part) & the medulla (inner part). The cortex secretes hormones corticosteroids & the medulla secretes the hormones catecholamines.
Where is the thymus gland located & what is it's function?
The thymus gland is located behind the breast bone, in front of the heart. It is involved in maturation (development) of the immune system.
What is a thymectomy?
A thymectomy is a removal of the thymus & is usually performed by cutting through the breast bone, much like heart surgery.
Where is the pancreas located?
This organ is located behind the stomach, and the head of the organ is attached to the duodenum (first section of the small intestine).
Where is the carotid body & what is it's function?
The carotid body is tissue rich in capillaries that act as receptors located near the bifurcation (splitting into two) of the carotid arteries. The receptors monitor arterial oxygen content & pressure.
How do the endocrine glands secrete hormones?
The endocrine glands are ductless. They secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream rather than through ducts leading to the exterior of the body.
How do exocrine glands secrete?
Exocrine glands send their chemical substances into ducts & then out of the body. Examples of exocrine glands are sweat, mammary, mucous, salivary & lacrimal (tear ducts).
What is a thyroidectomy?
A thyroidectomy is the removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. This is performed to assist in treatment of various thyroid diseases, such as thyroid nodules, hyperthyroidism, cancer of the thyroid gland, or enlargement of the thyroid that may cause breathing or swallowing difficulties.
Under which circumstance is a partial thyroid lobectomy performed?
The lesion must be located in the upper or lower portion of only one lobe.
When is a total thyroid lobectomy performed?
A total thyroid lobectomy is performed for solitary nodules that are suspected to be cancerous or those that are indeterminate following biopsy that are isolated to one lobe (not common). The procedure may or may not include isthmusectomy (removal of the part that connects the two thyroid lobes).
What is an isthmusectomy & what is it's purpose?
An isthmusectomy removes more thyroid tissue than a simple lobectomy & is performed when a larger margin of tissue is needed to assure that all suspect tissue has been removed.
Why is a subtotal thyroidectomy performed?
A subtotal thyroidectomy is performed to excise all questionable tissue on the side of the gland as well as the isthmus & the majority of the opposite lobe. This procedure is typical for small, non-aggressive thyroid neoplasms & for goiters that result in problems in the neck or those that extend into the chest (substernal goiters).
What is a total thyroidectomy & why is it performed?
A total thyroidectomy removes all of the thyroid gland & is often the procedure of choice for thyroid neoplasms that are larger and/or aggressive. Many surgeons prefer this procedure for thyroid neoplasms regardless of the type of neoplasms.
How is thyroidectomy performed?
A thyroidectomy utilizes a standard neck incision about 4-5 inches in length. Many surgeons perform procedure thru incision of 3 inches. The incision is made in the lower part of the central neck & typically involves the removal of that part of the thyroid that contains the suspect tissue.
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