Thalamus and Internal Capsule

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  1. True or False: All sensory pathways synapse in the thalamus.
    • False
    • (the olfactory pathway does not synapse in the thalamus)
  2. What are the subcomponents of the diencephalon as seen in the adult brain?
    • epithalamus (pineal and habenula)
    • thalamus (dorsal thalamus)
    • hypothalamus
    • subthalamus (ventral thalamus)
  3. What is the interthalamic adhesion?
    • it is the only connecting point between the two thalami in each hemisphere
    • it is a variably present fusion of some of the midline nuclei
  4. What structure lies between the posterior poles of the thalami?
    pineal gland
  5. What comprises each of the 4 surfaces of each thalamus?
    • lateral surface: bounded by white matter of internal capsule
    • medial surface: 3rd ventricle (hypothalamic sulcus separates thalamus and hypothalamus)
    • superior surface: in subarachnoid space of transverse cerebral fissure, choroid plexus
    • inferior surface: anteriorly hypothalamus, posteriorly subthalamus and midbrain
  6. What is the posterior part of the thalamus called?
  7. What are the sensory nuclei of the thalamus and their respective representations?
    • ventral posterior medial (VPM): somatosensory from face
    • ventral posterior lateral (VPL): somatosensory from the body
    • lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN): visual
    • medial geniculate nucleus (MGN): auditory
  8. What are the motor nuclei of the thalamus and their respective associations?
    • ventral anterior (VA): basal ganglia, cerebellum
    • ventral lateral (VL): cerebellum, basal ganglia
  9. What are the limbic nuclei of the thalamus and their respective associations?
    • anterior (A): mammillary bodies
    • medial dorsal (MD): hypothalamus
  10. What are the association nuclei of the thalamus?
    • lateral dorsal (LD)
    • lateral posterior (LP)
    • pulvinar (P)
  11. What are the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus?
    • midline
    • reticular
  12. Which structure separates the thalamus into anterior, medial, and lateral parts?
    internal medullary lamina
  13. What part of the thalamus can be considered a continuation of the periaqueductal grey?
    midline nuclei
  14. Outputs from the thalamus project through which structure to reach the cortex?
    internal capsule
  15. Which thalamic nuclei are involved in the maintenance of rhythmic, sleep-wake cycles?
    intralaminar thalamic nuclei
  16. What are the connections of the ventral anterior thalamic nuclei?
    • inputs: globus pallidus (cerebellum)
    • outpus: premotor and supplementary motor (motor and premotor)
  17. What are the connections of the ventral lateral thalamic nuclei?
    • inputs: cerebellum (globus pallidus)
    • outpus: motor and premotor (premotor and supplementary motor)
  18. What are the connections of the VPL and VPM thalamic nuclei?
    • input: somatosensory
    • output: sensory cortex
  19. What are the connections of the LGN thalamic nuclei?
    • input: visual
    • output: sensory cortex
  20. What are the connections of the MGN thalamic nuclei?
    • input: auditory
    • output: sensory cortex
  21. What tracts are contained within the internal capsule?
    • (projection fibers)
    • corticospinal
    • corticobulbar
    • corticothalamic
    • thalamocortical (both limbs of internal capsule)
  22. What do radiations of the anterior limb of the internal capsule connect?
    • medial and anterior thalamic nuclei
    • frontal cortex
  23. What do radiations of the posterior limb of the internal capsule connect?
    • ventral thalamic nuclei
    • precentral (motor) and postcentral (somatosensory) gyri
    • corticobulbar tract
    • corticospinal tract
  24. What do radiations of the retrolenticular formation of the internal capsule connect?
    • LGN
    • primary visual cortex (occipital cortex: calcarine fissure)
    • (Meyer's loop, optic radiation)
  25. What do radiations of the sublenticular formation of the internal capsule connect?
    • MGN
    • anterior transverse temporal gyrus (primary auditory cortex)
    • (auditory radiation)

Card Set Information

Thalamus and Internal Capsule
2010-05-24 05:50:44
Thalamus Internal Capsule neuroscience neuroanatomy HUBIO Felicia Lucas project neuro

Thalamus and Internal Capsule (HUBIO 532)
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