What is the main problem that occurs with type 1 diabetes?
complete lack of insulin production by beta cells of the pancreas. glucose is not removed from the blood stream.
What is the major problem that occurs with diabetes type 2?
hyperglycemia due to insufficient functional insulin receptors. usually these people are overweight and sedentary.
Why can insulin not be taken orally?
Because insulin is a small protein and the digestive enzymes of the stomach and small intestine denature and hydrolyze it
What can occur if insulin injections are given in the same spot repeatedly?
What type of insulin is Humulin R/ Novolin R? What is the new variation of this and what is the advantage?
Short-acting regular insulin.
Humalog! two of the amino acids (lysine and proline) are reversed from human insulin and has a faster onset.
What is Humalog good at addressing?
Which type of insulin exists as a cloudy suspension of tiny insulin crystals that must dissolve before they can be active?
Intermediate acting insulin!
Ex: Humulin, Novolin and Lantus
This is a combination product of intermediate acting insulin and regular insulin in a stable 70:30 mix.
Humulin 70:30 and Novolin 70/30
How is long-term blood sugar control monitored?
By measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)
What is the normal range for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels? What about in diabetics?
In non-diabetics the range is 5.0-5.5%
Diabetics should keep levels under 7.0%
What is Exubera?
Exubera is an inhalation form insulin that made it to stage 3 trials.
These are oral drugs that type 2 diabetics can take.
(glipizide, glyburide, and glimepiride)
How do sulfonylureas work?
They stimulate the release of insulin from the beta cells in the pancreas to promote the uptake of blood sugar and storage.
What is an undesirable side effect of sulfonylureas?
Name three examples of this type of drug.
increased appetite and weight gain
glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride
This is the most commonly prescribed oral diabetic drug.
How does Metformin work?
it decreases the liver production of glucose, increases the sensitivity of liver insulin receptors to insulin, and elevates muscle utilization of glucose.
Which diabetic drugs have Black box warnings?
Avandia and Actos.
These increase the risk of congestive heart failure and mortality
Genetically engineered human insulin is called
_______ or _______
Novolin or Humulin
A form of insulin that works even more rapidly than regular insulin:
An intermediate acting form of insulin that is in crystalline form:
Humulin N (NPA)
A long acting (24 hr) form of insulin:
The family name for the oral diabetes drugs which stimulate insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas:
One specific member of this family:
glimepiride & glyburide
A first-line oral diabetic drug which improves receptor sensitivity:
Another oral diabetic drug ________ also treats diabetes by increasing receptor sensitivity and decreasing _______ in the liver.
_____ has been taken off the market because of increased risk of _______
MI & CHF
Diabetics who have elevated blood glucose have increased reaction of that glucose with blood proteins. the % of proteins which has reacted with glucose is measured for the protein _______ and is referred to as the ______ on lab reports. For non diabetics this % is typically: _______