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What does it mean for bacteria to be Gram Positive?
They have thick peptidoglycan cell wall around thier membrane that stain purple.
Name some common Gram Positive bacteria:
- -Helicobacter (Ulcers)
What does it mean for bacteria to be Gram negative?
the bacteria has a thin peptidoglycan wall surrounded by a second lipid bylayer membrane. These stain pink.
What kind of bacteria has a thick peptidoglycan wall?
Gram positive bacteria
What type of bacteria has a thin peptidoglycan wall with a second lipid bilayer?
Gram negative bacteria
Name two gram negative bacteria:
What three bacteria do not fit in to the gram negative/positive categories?
- 1- Mycobacteria
- 2- Chlamydia trachomatis
- 3- Mycoplasma pneumomia
Antibiotics that inhibit bacterial growth:
Antibiotics that kill bacteria:
Name antibiotics that work by inhibiting the cell wall synthesis leading to bursting from osmotic pressure imbalances.
- 1- penicillins
- 2- cephalosporins
- 3- penem drugs
- 4- vancomycin
Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Panem drugs, and Vancomycin all work by causing:
Cells to swell and burst due to osmotic pressure imbalances.
Tetracyclines, Erythromycins, Chloramphenicol, and Clindamycin all work by:
inhibiting protein synthesis on bacterial ribosomes prevent bacteria from making essential enzymes and structural proteins
What antibacterials work by inhibiting DNA synthesis:
Sulfonamides, Trimethoprim and Fluoroquinolone family all work by:
inhibiting DNA synthesis
Nystatin, Bacitracin, Clotrimazole family, and Polymyxin B all work by:
increasing wall permeability causing osmotic pressure imbalance and cell lysis
What is MIC?
Minimum inhibitory concentration
What is MBC?
Minimum bacteriocidal concentration
What is the difference between narrow spectrum antibiotics and broad spectrum antibiotics?
broad spectrum antibiotics treat/target more organisms.
What is a major problem that can occur when using broad spectrum antibiotics?
It can wipe out the naturally occurring bacteria in the GI tract.
What are the three main ways that antibiotic resistance occurs?
- 1- modified cell wall to be impermeable to antibiotic
- 2- modified enzyme affected by antibiotic to be no longer suceptible
- 3- genetically acquired enzyme that destroys antibiotic
Which drug family exhibits all types of resistance:
What enzyme is inhibited by penicillin?
transpeptidase (penicillin bind protein)
What is transpeptidase involved in?
synthesizing bacterial cell wall of mostly Gram positive bacteria
What type of infection is developed from a hospital?
Bacteria can become resistant by decreasing the _____ of their cell walls to penicillin.
Bacteria can be resistant to bacteria by changing the structure of _______ so that pencillin no longer acts on them.
their transpeptidase enzymes
Bacteria can become resistant by acquiring the enzyme __________ (beta lactamase)
An infection acquired in a hospital:
infections picked up "on the street":
Community acquired infections
Antibiotics which inhibit cell wall synthesis:
- Penicillin family
This was the earliest penicillin in use. It must be given by ______ and has a ______ spectrum.
- Penicillin G
Penicillin that is stable to stomach acid and can be taken orally. This is narrow spectrum.
Broad spectrum penicillin that also works on gram _____ bacteria.
The most commonly prescribed antibiotic in the country. Bacteria have acquired the _______enzyme.
- beta lactamase
Augmentin is a combination of _______ and _______.
Potassium Clavulanate and amoxicillin
Potassium clavulanate and amoxicillin make the product:
Amoxicillin/ potassium clavulanate (Augmentin)
Amoxicillin is the first choice drug for what type of patient?
Patients with heart valve replacements and heart transplants needing dental work
What alternative antibiotics can be given to patients that are allergic to penicillins?
Clindamycin, Azithromycin, Cephalexin (Keflex)
This antibiotic family was isolated from the sewers in Naples, Italy.
Although cephalosporins are typically resistant to _______, bacteria have _______ that attack.
First generation Cephalosporins:
Cephalexin (Keflex)- used to treat UTI, Respiratory Tract infections, and Soft tissue infections.
The most commonly prescribed Cephalosporin:
Second generation Cephalosporins:
- 1- Cefprozil
- 2- Cefaclor
- 3- Cefuroxime
These can be given orally
Third generation Cephalosporins:
- 1- Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
- 2- Cefdinir (Omnicef)
- 3- Ceftazidime (Cefzim, Fortaz)
Drug of choice for gonorrhea. Also preferred drug for meningitis and pneumonia. Must be given ______
IV or IM
Third generation Cephalosporin used to treat many forms of respiratory infections.
Broad spectrum drug effective against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. This is common in ___ units and must be given via ____.
Ceftazidime (Cefzim, Fortaz)
Normally reserved for life threatening Gram positive infections such as _______.
MRSA (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureas)
What are common side effects from Vancomycin?
ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
The macrolide (erythromycin) family inhibits:
bacterial protein synthesis
which two family's inhibit protein synthesis?
Works by selectively inhibiting protein synthesis in bacteria and is also used to treat acne.
Taken once daily for 5 days. Attachs to WBCs.
Azithromycin (Zithromax/ Z-Pak)
Works by inhibiting bacterial ribosomes:
Typically added to animal feed and is broad spectrum.
This member of the tetracycline family has a short half life and should be taken on an empty stomach
A tetracycline that must be taken with food.
What can occur with low doses of Doxycycline?
regrowth of receding gingiva in periodontal disease.
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