Parasite Practical #2 (Set 4)

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Parasite Practical #2 (Set 4)
2013-03-13 20:47:21

Set 4
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  1. Phylum Sarcomatigopha
      Order Diplomonadida
       Giardia lamblia Trophozoite
    • (these are actually cysts)

    • Note symmetry, adhesive disk, and median bodies
    • Feed on mucous layer
    • cysts are infective to host
  2. Phylum Sarcomastigophora
      Order Trichomonadida
       Dientamoeba fragilis cyst
    Large intestine of Humans
    • No cyst stage
    • Lacks a flagellum
    • Typically binuclear
  3. Phylum Sarcomastigophora
      Order Trichomonadida
       Trichomonas vaginalis cyst
    Urogenital tract of Humans
    • Sexually transmitted among human hosts
    • Trophozoites are the infective stage
    • Cysts are not known
    • Related to T. tenax, which inhabits the mouth, is commensal, and is
    • exchanged by saliva
  4. Order Hypermastigida
      Trichonympha sp
    • Wood Roach
    • Encysted, undergoing gametogenesis in synctrony with host molt
  5. Phylum Sarcomastigophora
      Order Hypermastigida
        Barbulanympha sp.
    • Asexual cell
    • Haploid
    • Note in class stained pink
  6. - Cysts are resistance, thick-walled, dormant stages that are infective to the host when ingested
    - Trophozoites reproduce asexually inside the host's intestine by longitudinal binary fission in which the flagellate body divides longitudinally
    Describe the difference between cysts and trophs for flagellates
  7. Phylum Sarcomastigophora
      Order Kinetoplastida
        Section Salivaria
        Section Sterocoraria
    Kinetoplastid taxonomy
  8. Trypanosoma brucei brucei
    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
    Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
    • Phylum Sarcomastigophora
    •  Order Kinetoplastida
    •   Section Salivaria
  9. Trypanosoma cruzi
    Trypanosoma lewisii
    • Phylum Sarcomastigophora
    •  Order Kinetoplastida
    •   Section Stercoraria
  10. - usually highly pathogenic
    - have a single, large mitochondrion with a dark staining body, inside- kinetoplast
    -has its own unique DNA- kDNA
    -Infect digestive tracts of insects (direct lifecycle)
    -those that infect vertebrates have one stage of their lives in the blood and tissues and the next in gut of biting insect vector
    Describe hemoflagellates
  11. Salvaria- parasite utilizes a biting insect and positions infective stages in the salvary glands- injected into host
    Sterocoraria- infective stage remains in gut, insect defecates in host skin while feeding
    What is the difference between Salvaria and Sterocoraria
  12. - nucleus
    - kinetoplast
    - kinetosome (insertion point for costa)
    - axonome (insertion point for flagellum)
    - flagellum and/or undulating membrane
    What are the different parts that each stage has in the Hemoflagellates?
  13. simple spheroid stage with a small, anterior free flagellum; kinetoplast and kinetosome situated at the anterior relative to the nucleus
    -in vertebrate hosts
    Describe Amastigote
  14. - Elongate body form with a free flageullum at the anterior; kinetoplast and kinetosome situated at the anterior and the nuclues lies in the center of the body
    - found in inverts
    Describe Promastigote
  15. - Elongate body with a free flagellum that becomes a short undualting membrane half way along the body; kinetoplast situated anterior to nucleus; nucleus remains posterior to the undulating membrane
    -invert hosts
    Describe epimastigote stage
  16. - characteristic stage swimming in the blood
    - elongate body form with free flagellum that becomes an undulating membrane along hte whole body
    -kinetoplast situated at posterior extremeity
    -nucleus at mid-body
    Describe Tryponastigote
  17. -Occur in tropical Africa
    - in vert host trpomastigotes multiply aseually and spread throughout the body in the circulatory system
    -Insect vectors become infected by feeding on the vert host
    - trypomastigotes multiply within the insect gut and then migrate to the salivary glands
    Describe Trypanosoma brucei
  18. Hemoflagellates
      Order Kinetoplastida
        Section Salvaria
         Trypanosoma brucei trypomastigotes
    • Glossina sp.
    • In the vertebrate host, tryptomastigotes multiply asexually and spread throughout the body in the circulatory system
    • Also multiply in the insect gut and then migrate to the salivary glands
    • Diagnostic stage
  19. Hemoflagellates
      Order Kinetoplastida
        Section Stercoraria
         Trypanosoma lewisi trypomastigotes
    Rattus sp.
    Northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus)

    • Note apparent kinetoplast - very large compared to T. brucei- Vectored by the 
    • Only mildly pathogenic
  20. Hemoflagellates
      Order Kinetoplastida
        Section Stercoraria
         Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes
    Humans and other mammals
    Kissing bug

    • Causes Chagas disease
    • Kissing bug becomes infected individuals and ingesting trypomastigote stages
    • In the gut of the vector they become epimastigoes, multiplying by longitudinal fission, and revert back to the trypomastigote stage that is infected to the next host
    • Trypomastigotes are expelled with the feces onto the hots's skin when it feeds on a vertebrate
    • Lose flagella and begin to multiply amastigote stages
    • Use reservoir hosts
  21. Hemoflagellates
      Order Kinetoplastida
        Section Salvaria
         Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes
    Humans and other mammals
    Kissing bug
    • Amastigotes in rat heart x-section
  22. Hemoflagellates
      Order Kinetoplastida
        Leishmania donovani 
    • promastigotes cultured fromamastigotes collected from human blood
    • sample
    • Vectored by sand flies
    • No trypanomastigote stages - just
    • promastigotes in insects andamastigotes in vertebrate hosts
    • Visceral or cutaneous pathologies
  23. Hemoflagellates
      Order Kinetoplastida
        Leishmania donovani amastigotes

    smear of hamster spleen- Note tons of amastigotes among debris of lysed macrophage cells
  24. Phylum Arthropoda
      Class Insecta
        Order Diptera
          Phlebotomus papatasi
    Leishmania vector
  25. Phylum Ciliophora

    • From the respiratory tree of sea cucumbers
    • A thigmotrich ciliate - thigmotactic (holdfast) cilia are visible at the posterior end
    • Note macronucleus in the center of the cell
    • Note micronucleus in the posterior half of the body
  26. Phylum Ciliophora
      Balantidium coli
    Humans, pigs, mammals
    • In situ
    • Trophozoite- notice vacuole
    • Note macro and micronucleus
    • Cysts
    • largest protozoan known from humans
    • Found in the caecum and colon
    • Pathology resembles that of E. histolytica
    • Cysts are ingested, excyst in intestine, multiply by transverse binary fission, invade the wall of the colon
    • Note sausage-shaped macronucleus
    • Note there is no vacuole in cyst stage
  27. Phylum Ciliophora
      Apostome ciliates
    Alpheid shrimp
    • Pictured are trophont stages feeding on molting fluids
    • Transmission is via the motile stage (tomite)
    • Trophonts visible here as tiny, jerky-moving, transparent dots
  28. Phylum Apicomplexa
      acephaline gregarine
    Seminal vesicles of earthworm
    • Monocystis ^
    • Trophozoite
    • Note that troph is covered with little hairs - these are actually the host's sperm, which the troph is eating
  29. Phylum Apicomplexa
       Monocystis lubrici
         Lubricus terrestralis
        Acephaline gregarine

    • Sporocyst
    • Troph
  30. Phylum Apicomplexa
       Order Eugregarinida
    Urechis caupo (penis worm)

    • Gregarine troph
    • Note that epimerite is anchored in host mucosal tissue
    • Note nucleus in deutomerite
    • Note septum between deutomerite and protomerite
  31. Phylum Apicomplexa
       Order Eugregarinida
    • Cephaline gregarine from the gut of the hide beetle
    • Note epimerite, protomerite, septum, and deutomerite