-Provides direct visualization to the cervix and vagina.
-Can ovserve the color of the tissue, presences of growth and lesions, condition of the vasularity
-Visualization of the uterus and the adnexa (overies and fallopian tubes)
-local,spinal, or general
-scope passes through vag. wall
-examine for tumors, cyst, and endometriosis
Visualization through a small incision in the abdomen just below the umbilicus.
Direct visualization of the uterus and adnexa.
Foley to keep bladder empty to avoid trauma and keep open veiw.
Examine fallopian tubes and ovaries for masses, ectopic pregnancy, adhesionsa nd PID as well as removal of ovarian cyst and tubal ligation
Papanicolaou test (pap smear)
Examines stained exfoliative peeling and sloughed off tissue or cells.
Widely known for early detection of cervical cancer.
INFECTIOUS ATYPICAL SQUAMOUS CELLS
TREAT INFECTION REPEAT PAP
LOW-GRADE SQUAMOUS INTAEPITHLIAL LEASIONS
REPEAT PAP IN 8-12 WEEKS
HIGH-GRADE SZUAMOUS INTREPITHELIAL LESIONS
INVASIVE SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
TREATMENT WITH CONIZATION
USED TO DIFFERENTIATE BENIGN OR MALIGNANT TUMORS
NEEDLE BIOPSY - LOCAL
OPEN BIOPSY - GENERAL OR LOCAL
INDICATIONS FOR A BREAST BIOPSY
SUSPICIOUS AREAS APPEAR ON MAMMOGRAM
PERSISTENT, ENCRUSTED, PURULENT, INFLAMED, OR SANGUINEOUS DISCHARGE FROM NIPPLES
EVALUATE CERVIASL LESIONS AND TO DIAGNOSE CERVICAL CANCER
USUALLY NO ANASTHESIA
COLPOSCOPE IS INSTRED THROUGH VAGINAL SPECULUM FOR DIRECT VISUALIZATION
CERVICAL SITE IS SELECTED, CLEANSED AND TISSUE IS REMOVED
collect tissue for diagnosis for endometrial cancer and analysis for infertility studies
generally performed at time of menstration, when the cervix is dialated the cells are more easily obtained
a curette is inserted and tissues is obtained from selected sites of the endometrium
indicated when eroded or infected tissue is to be removed or when there is a need for confimation of cervical cancer
PROCEDURE FOR CONIZATION
cone shaped section is removed when the mass is confoined to the epithelial tissue
DILATION AND CURETTAGE
used to obtain tissue for biopsy, to correct ciervials sticture, and to treat dysmenorrhea
the cervix is dialated and the inside of the uterus scraped with a curette.
Cultures and smears
enamin and identify infectious proscess, presence of abnormal cells, and hormonal cnanges of the repro system.
cultures are taken from exudates of the breast, vagina, rectum,and urethera
STD's and mastitis are diagonesd by isolation of the causative organisms
SCHILLER'S IODINE TEST
used for early detection of cancer cells and to guide the dr. in doing a biopsy
iodine is apllied tht ohte cerbic and produces a brown stain for nomal vaginal cells
a normal cell will stain brown
immature cell will not absorbe the stain
Hysterograms and systerosalpingograms
studies for visualizing the uterine cavity to confirm:
1) tubal abnormalalities
2) the presence of forign bodies
3) congnital malfomation and leiomyomas (fibroids)
4) traumatic injuries
PROCEDURE FOR HYSTEROGRAMS AND HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAMS
a speculum is inserted into the vagina, a cannula is inserted trough the speculum into the cervical cavity, and a contrast medium is progressed therough the cavity, the uterus and fallopian tubes are veiwed by a flouroscope and films are taken
X-ray of the soft tissue of the breast to allow identification of various benign and neoplastic processes, especially those not palpable on the physical exam.
transuterian insufflation of hte fallopian tubes with cabon dioxide
enables evaluation of the patency of the fallopian tubes and may be part of a fertility study
a tumor antigen associated with ovarian cancer
levels will decrease in the blood as cancer cells decrease
eondometiosis, PID, pregnancy, gynecological cancers, and cancer of the pancreas may also increase CA-125 levels
it is maily useful to signal recurrence of ovarian cancer and in following the response to treatment
absences of mesturaul flow for 3 mo after having a regulated period.
ASSESSMENT FOR AMENORRHEA
1) number of periods missed
2) whether amenorrhea was previously present
recent use of medicatios and drugs needs to be determined
Diagnostic tests for amenorrhea
if pregnancy not a possibility:
blood, urine, and hormonal analysis
determination of existing tumors
uterine pain with menstruation
can be r/t eindocrince imbalance; and increase in prostaglandin secreations; or chronic illnesses, fatigue, and anemia
DIAGNOSTIC TEST OF DYEMENORRHEA
EXCESSIVE BLEEDING IN AMOUNT AND DURATION AND DURING THE REGULAR MENSTRUAL FLOW