World History Midterm Ch. 17

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scrumpler1
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205085
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World History Midterm Ch. 17
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2013-03-05 03:26:23
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World History Midterm Ch. 17
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  1. Seven Years' War
    • 1756-1763
    • War between Britain and France
    • Fought not only in Europe but in the Americas, West Africa, and South Asia
  2. European Enlightenment
    The notion that humans could improve their political and social conditions by action was very radical in the 18th century and at the heart of Enlightenment
  3. Popular Sovereignty
    • Authority to govern comes from the people
    • This is an important political argument of the Enlightenment
  4. American Revolution
    Scholars questioned whether this revolution was a revolution at all, because it was a reaction to new exactions from Britain, rather than an effort to gain new liberties
  5. Social conditions in British colonies of North America
    • All free men had the same legal status
    • This situation was very radical by European standards of the time
  6. The U.S. Constitution
    Its series of checks and balances, separation of church and state, federalism, and Bill of Rights was a sweeping early effort to practice what the Enlightenment preached
  7. Spark that set off the French Revolution
    • King Louis XVI, in dire financial straits, called a session of the Estates General
    • The 3rd estate claimed an authority and made demands
  8. French Revolution
    • It was much more violent and radical than its American counterpart
    • It caused profound social change
  9. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
    • This king and queen of France were executed in 1793
    • It marked a new stage of revolutionary violence in France
  10. Bastille
    A fortress, prison, and armory in Paris
  11. Influential spread of French Revolution
    • By conquest
    • In the early 19th century, France conquered a number of European states, introducing revolutionary ideas to the regions they defeated
  12. Napoleon Bonaparte
    This French national leader imposed revolutionary practices such as religious toleration and the rationalization of government administration through much of Europe
  13. Haitian Revolution
    This revolution began with a massive slave revolt in 1791 after rumors circulated that the French king had abolished slavery
  14. Toussaint Louverture
    • He was the leader of the Haitian Revolution
    • He was a former slave
  15. Reason for poverty of Haiti
    In 1825, the French forced Haiti to agree to pay a massive "independence debt" that was a financial burden on the state for over a century
  16. Miguel Hidalgo and José Morelos
    • Led a major peasant rebellion in Mexico in 1810
    • They were crushed by an army raised by creole landowners with support from the Church hierarchy
  17. Portuguese royal family
    They sought refuge in their colony of Brazil when Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1808
  18. Nativism
    A political view that argued that all people born in the Americas have a common cause against European-born enemies
  19. Creole elites
    They were the chief beneficiaries of Spanish America's revolution, becoming the leaders of colonial society rather than overthrowing it
  20. Abolition
    • Great movement to end slavery
    • It developed from the ideas and practices of the Atlantic revolutions
  21. Last Atlantic state to abolish slavery
    • Brazil
    • Slaves were emancipated in 1888
  22. Indian and Chinese indentured servants
    • Came to work in the Americas in the 19th century
    • The abolition of slavery left owners desperate for workers in mines and on plantations
    • Most were brought in to work on sugar plantations, in mines, and in construction projects, where they labored under conditions very similar to slavery
  23. Freed slaves in Atlantic world during the 19th century
    • They suffered legal restrictions, racism, and economic hardship
    • One historian said, freed slaves won "nothing but freedom." They didn't receive anything close to political equality and suffered severe economic hardship
  24. Slavery in the Islamic world
    • It was only outlawed gradually in the 20th century under international pressure
    • Islamic world didn't experience a large-scale abolition movement
  25. Hindrance to development of nationalism in 18th century
    People's most important loyalties were local, limited to their clan, village, or region
  26. Nationalism
    • The idea of the "nation" was constructed in the 19th century, but it was often imagined as a reawakening of older cultural identities
    • Nationalist leaders drew on history, culture, and collective memory to articulate and shape their nations
  27. Civic nationalism
    • Political view that identifies the nation with a particular territory and maintains that people of all cultural backgrounds can assimilate into the dominant culture
    • Sees nations as "melting pots"
  28. Feminism
    • Emerged as a major force in Europe and North America in the 19th century
    • A reason it emerged is because the Enlightenment had challenged many traditional notions, including the one that women are intrinsically inferior
  29. Seneca Falls, New York 1848
    The 1st organized women's rights conference took place here
  30. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    Feminist leader who published a Women's Bible that left out all the parts she found offensive

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