AP Exam 2 Joints Skeleton Integument

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AP Exam 2 Joints Skeleton Integument
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2013-03-10 20:41:20
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  1. 5 S/s of inflammation
    • Swelling
    • Redness
    • Heat
    • Induration/immobility
    • Pain
    • "PRISH"
  2. Superficial Wound
    • Only epidermis involved
    • Cells broken, cytoplasm leaks, makes a thin scab
    • Under the scab, stratum basale breaks apart and reproduces at a high rate
    • When cells touch, they stop and begin to fill in and keratinize
  3. Deep wound
    • Involves dermis
    • Bleeding
    • Inflammation
  4. Inflammation
    • Upon injury, mast cells are broken, releasing vesicles of histamine and heparin.
    • Heparin prevents spread of clot
    • Kinin attract WBC's, induce vasodilation
  5. Prostaglandin
    • cases changes in vessels
    • sensitize to pain
  6. Histamine (7 lines)
    • dilates vessels
    • increases blood vessel permeability, causing:
    • local edema (swelling),
    • warmth,
    • redness
    • attraction of other inflammatory cells
    • irritates nerve endings (leading to itching or pain).
  7. Sweat glands
    • Suderiferous
    • Eccrine-watery, between hair follicles
    • Apocrine-oily, in crotch, armpits and aerola along a hair shaft, produces odor when bacteria interacts with it.
    • Apocrine are animal communication method
  8. Lacunae
    Hole occupied by cell
  9. Osteocyte
    Cell inside lacunae
  10. Lamellae
    thin plate of bone, circular
  11. Central Canal
    also Haversian canal, center of osteon
  12. Transverse canal
    also Volkmann's canal, perpindicular canals connecting osteons
  13. Canaliculi
    Tiny canals from central canal to all lamellae
  14. Periosteum
    membrane outer surface of bone
  15. Bone projections
    tuberosity, tubercle, crest, line, epicondyle, spine, process
  16. Projections for articulation
    head, condyle, facet
  17. Depressions
    meatus, sinus, fossa, groove, fissure, foramen
  18. Functional classification of joints
    Synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, diarthrotic
  19. Synovial joints
    • cavity-synovial fluid,
    • articular capsule-fibrous capsule, synovial membrane
    • articular (hyaline) cartilage-chondrocytes, lacunae
    • reinforcing lagaments
    • nursae
  20. Synarthritic
    No movement-suture-fibrous cartilage
  21. Amphiarthritic
    Slightly moveable-symphoses
  22. Diarthritic
    • Freely moveable
    • Synovial
  23. Hyaline Cartilage
    • Chondrocytes
    • Lacunae
  24. Bursa
    Tendon sheet to reduce friction
  25. Macro Anatomy of Bone (7)
    • Periosteum-perforating Sharpey's fibers
    • Endosteum
    • Spongy (cancellous) bone
    • Diaphysis
    • epiphysis
    • epiphyseal plate/line
    • Medullary cavity
  26. Micro anatomy of bone (7)
    • Osteon (Haversian system)
    • Lacunae
    • Osteocyte
    • Lamellae
    • Central (Haversian) canal
    • Transverse (Volkmann's) canal
    • Canaliculi
  27. Axial Skeleton 3
    • Skull-facial and cranial
    • Vertebral Column-vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx
    • Thoracic cage-Costal bones, sternum
    • Hyoid
  28. Appendicular Skeleton-Upper (10 lines)
    • 126 bones
    • Pectoral girdle-pectoral girdle, scapula
    • Humerus
    • Ulna
    • Radius
    • Carpals (16)
    • Metacarpals (10)
    • Phalngeals (28)
  29. Appendicular-Lower (8 lines)
    • Pelvic Girdle-coxal bone
    • Femur
    • Patella
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • Tarsals
    • Metatarsals
    • Phalangeals
  30. SkeletalFeatures(6)
    • Levers
    • Storage-of-minerals
    • Hemopoesis
    • Scaffolding-and-support
    • Landmarks
    • Armor-protective
    • SHALLS
  31. Three-skeletal-tissues
    • DenseConnective
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
  32. Dense-connective-tissue-in-skeleton (4)
    • Periosteum-covers-all-bones
    • Nutrients
    • Stem-cells-regeneration(osteoblasts,chondroblasts)
    • Protects-maintains-integrity
  33. Cartilage-in-skeletal-system (7)
    • Specialized-connective-tissue
    • Rigid-matrix-
    • mix-of-fibers(collagen-elastin)
    • Mineral-salts
    • Hyaluronic-acid
    • Mostly-water
    • Bearing-surfaces-embryonic-bones-tendon-ligament-attachments
  34. Collagen-vs-elastic
    • Collagen-rope-like-structure-high-tensile-strength-fine-fibers-not-visible
    • Elastin-bent-proteins-stretchy
  35. Three-types-of-cartilage
    Hyaline-elastic-fibrocartilage
  36. Hyaline-cartilage
    • Costal-articular-embryonic-bones
    • Most-susceptible-to-damage
    • Nonvasccular
    • Often-replaced-by-scar-tissue
    • Regenerated-by-stem-cells
  37. Enzyme-MRSA-eats-flesh
    Hyaluronidase
  38. Elastic-Cartilage
    • Ears-epiglottis-some-larynx
    • High-density-of-elastin
    • Flexible/resilient
    • Perichondrium-less-susceptible-to-degeneration
  39. Fibrocartilage(6)
    • Intervetebral-disks,symphoses
    • Intermediate-between-cartilage&dense-connective
    • Resists-deformation
    • Always-found-with-dense-connective-tissue
    • No-perichondrium
    • Easily-repaired
  40. Three types of skeletal cartilage –
    Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage
  41. Hyaline Cartilage –
    • the most common type. contains only very fine collagen fibers.
    • the matrix has a glassy trranslucent appearance.
    • found in the nose and at the end of long bones and the ribs
    • froms rings in the walls of respiratory passages.
    • the fetal skeleton is made up of this type of cartilage, later it is replaced by bone.
  42. Elastic Cartilage –
    much more flexible than hyaline cartilage and tolerates repeated bending better w/ more elastic fibers (cartilages of external ear and the epiglottis)
  43. Fibrocartilage –
    Type of cartilage that contains both chondrocytes and collagen; used for fusion & support and found in the knees and intervertebral disks of the back
  44. Number of bones –
    206
  45. Two classifications of bones –
    axial and appendicular
  46. Axial Skeleton –
    forms the long axis of the body, includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column and rib cage
  47. Appendicular skeleton –
    consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles
  48. Types of bones –
    flat bones, long bones, irregular bones
  49. Long bones –
    bones are longer than they are wide all limb bones excpet the patella, wrist and ankle bones
  50. Short bones –
    roughly cube shaped, nbones of the wrist and ankle
  51. Sesamoid bones –
    special type of short bone that form in a tendon ex. patella
  52. Flat bones –
    thin flattened and a bit curved bones ex. sternum, scapula, ribs, and most skull bones
  53. Irregular bones –
    bones that have complicated shapes that fit no other classification ex. vertebrae and hip bones
  54. functions of bones –
    support, protection, movement,mineral and growth factor starge, blood cell formation, fat storage,energy storage
  55. Hematopoiesis –
    formation of blood cells
  56. Bone textures –
    spongy and compact bone
  57. Compact Bone –
    external layer of bone
  58. Spongy Bone –
    internal layer of bone also called cancellous bone
  59. Trabeculae –
    honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces
  60. Structures of long bone –
    Diaphysis, epiphysis, membranes
  61. Diaphysis –
    shaft forming the long axis of the bone
  62. Epiphysis –
    the bone ends of a long bone
  63. Epiphyseal line –
    between the epiphysis and the diaphysisof an adult long bone
  64. epiphyseal plate –
    a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone
  65. Periosteum –
    a white double layered membrane covering the external surface of the entire bone
  66. Osteoblasts
    - bone forming cells which secrete bone matrix
  67. Osteoclasts –
    bone destroying cells
  68. Endosteum –
    delicate connective tissue covering the internal bone surfaces
  69. Osteon –
    the structural unit of compact bone, an elongated cylinder located parallel to the long axis of the bone, tiny weight bearing pillars
  70. lamella –
    a hollow tube of the osteon filled with red bone marrow
  71. central canal –
    inner hole of the osteon holding the nerve vein and artery
  72. perforating canals –
    canal lying at right angles to the long axis of the bone connecting the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to eh central canls and medullary cavity
  73. Lacunae –
    small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
  74. Canaliculi –
    hairlike canals connecting the lacunae to each other and the central canal
  75. Ossification –
    the process of bone formation
  76. joints –
    articulations
  77. Chondrocytes –
    form cartilage
  78. perforating canal –
    have blood vessels that carry blood to haversion canals
  79. Trabeculla –
    pattern of lamella in cancellous bone
  80. Yellow bone marrow –
    fat or adipose tissue
  81. Intramembranous ossification –(4)
    • the formation of the skull and the clavicle (flat bones)
    • 1. mesenchyme layed down in the shape of the bone
    • 2. mesenchyme get replaced with loose connective tissue
    • 3. osteoblasts move in and turn into bone
    • 4. osteoclasts move in and turn into cancellous bone
  82. Steps of endochondral ossification –
    • osteoblasts and bone collar forms,
    • cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and then develops cavities,
    • the peristeal bud invades the internal cavities and spongy bone begins to form,
    • the dipahysis elongates and a medullary ciavity forms as ossification continues,
    • secondary ossification begins in the epiphysis,
    • the eiphiphysis ossifies when completed cartilage remainsin the epiphysela plates and articular cartilage
  83. Repair of fractures –
    • 1. clot forms
    • 2. fibrocartilagenous callous forms wherever their is blood
    • 3. bony callous forms
    • 4. bone remodels by osteoclasts breaking down extra bone
  84. What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system? –
    support, structure, aid in movement, blood cell formation and storage
  85. What minerals does the bones store? –
    calcium and phosphate
  86. What does the body use calcium for? –
    bone formation, muscle contraction and nerve function
  87. How does the skeletal system aid in movement? –
    The bones provide an attachment point for the skeletal muscles.
  88. How do the skeletal muscles attach to bones? –
    using tendons and ligaments
  89. What are the 4 bone shapes? –
    long bone, short bone, flat bone and irregular bones
  90. What is an example of a long bone? –
    femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna
  91. What is an example of a short bone? –
    phalanges (fingers/toes)
  92. What is an example of a flat bone? –
    skull, scapula
  93. What is an example of an irregular bone? –
    Vertebra
  94. What is the central shaft of a long bone called? –
    diaphysis
  95. What are the extreme ends of the long bone called? –
    • epiphysis
    • What is the membrane called that surrounds the outside of the diaphysis? –
    • periosteum
  96. What the the membrane called that lines the inside of the medullary cavity? –
    endosteum
  97. What covers the end of the epiphysis where a joint would be? –
    articular cartilage
  98. What type of cartilage is articular cartilage made of? –
    hyaline cartilage
  99. Where is red bone marrow found? –
    in the epiphysis
  100. Where is yellow marrow found? –
    in the medullary cavity
  101. What is the function of red bone marrow? –
    to produce blood cells
  102. What is the process called that produces blood cells –
    Hematapoiesis
  103. What type of bone cell build up the bone matrix? –
    osteoblasts
  104. What type of bone cell breaks down bone matrix? –
    oestoclasts
  105. What type of bone cell is found in the lacunae? –
    osteocytes
  106. What is hydroxyapatite? –
    a hard crystal compound made up of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate
  107. What type of protein fiber is found in the matrix of bone? –
    collagen
  108. What 4 structures make up an osteon? –
    lamallae, osteonic canal, Volksmann's canal, canaliculi
  109. How is compact bone organized? –
    into osteons
  110. What does the osteonic canal hold? –
    blood vessels
  111. What type of canal connects the osteonic canal to blood vessels? –
    Volksmann's Canal
  112. What are the 2 ways in which bones can be formed? –
    Bones can form from embryonic membrane or cartilage templates
  113. What is the process called that turns cartilage into bone? –
    ossification?
  114. What do intramembranous bone develop from? –
    embryonic membrane
  115. What do endochondral bones develop form? –
    cartilage
  116. In an intramembranous bone, what develops first: spongy bone or compact bone? –
    spongy bone
  117. At what point in fetal development will ossification begin? –
    6-7 weeks after conception
  118. Which bones in the body are intramembranous bones? –
    flat bones of the skull, mandibles, clavicles
  119. What must happen the the cartilage template before osteocytes can begin to produce bone matrix? –
    The chondrocytes will swell and die when a blood vessel forms in the center of the diaphysis.
  120. How many bones is a baby born with? –
    over 300
  121. How many bones will an average adult have? –
    206
  122. What are the 2 types of bone growth? –
    Interstitial growth and appositional growth
  123. What type of bone growth occurs at the epiphyseal plate and increases the bone's length? –
    interstitial growth
  124. What type of bone growth occurs in the periosteum and increases the bone's circumference or width? –
    Appositional growth
  125. At what age will the epiphyseal plate fuse? –
    Between 16-21 years old. Females stop growing before males
  126. Where are the epiphyseal plates located on the bone? –
    in the epiphysis
  127. What 3 factors affect bone growth? –
    sufficient calcium, phosphate and vitamin D; correct hormone balance; the aging process
  128. How can you increase your bone density and strength? –
    excercise regulary, make sure that you are getting the right amount of calcium, phosphate and vitamin D
  129. What will decrease bone density and strength? –
    pregnancy, illness, eating disorders, nutrient deficiency
  130. What hormone is released from the pituitary gland? –
    Growth hormone
  131. What hormone is release from the thyroid? –
    Calcitonin
  132. What does calcitonin do for the body? –
    metabolizes calcium and phosphate
  133. What are the 4 hormones that must be balanced for correct bone density? –
    growth hormone, calcitonin, testosterone, estrogen
  134. How can you increase your bone density as an older adult? –
    excercise frequently
  135. What happens the blood vessels when the bone fractures? –
    the blood vessles break and the the bone bleeds
  136. What initiates fracture repair? –
    the bleeding of the bone
  137. What forms after the bone begins to bleed? –
    a fracture hematoma
  138. What is the purpose of the fracture hematoma? –
    • it is a blood clot that stops the bleeding
    • What forms on a fracture after the hematoma forms? –
    • a callus
  139. What is the function of a callus? –
    specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the bone together
  140. Why would osteoclasts needs to break down or dissolve bone matrix? –
    if the body is deficient in calcium, osteocytes will break down the bone matrix to release calcium for the muscle cells and nerve cells to use
  141. What type of fracture causes the affected area to shatter into many small bony peices? –
    Comminuted fracture
  142. What type of fracture causes the shaft of the bone to break across the long axis? –
    transverse fracture
  143. What type of fracture is produced by a twisting stress and spreads along the length of the bone? –
    Spiral fracture
  144. What type of fracture occurs at the ankle and affects both bones of the leg? –
    Pott's fracture
  145. What type of fracture is a break in the distal portion of the radius and is often the result of reaching out to cushion a fall? –
    Colle's fracture
  146. What type of fracture on breaks one side of the shaft and but leaves the other side bent? This usually occurs in children who bones have not yet fully ossified. –
    Greenstick fracture
  147. What type of fracture occures between the ephiphysis and epiphyseal plate? –
    epiphyseal fracture
  148. What type of fracture has the ability to halt further longitudinal growth unless carefully treated? –
    Epiphyseal fracture
  149. What type of fracture can occur in vertebrae subjected to extreme stress such as falling on your butt? –
    compression fracture
  150. What type of fracture produces new and abnormal arrangements of bony elements? –
    Displaced fractures
  151. What type of fracture retains the normal alignment of the bones? –
    nondisplaced fractures
  152. What type of tissue is cartilage made up of? –
    connective tissue
  153. Is cartialge vascular or avascular? –
    avascular
  154. How does cartilage get its nutrients? –
    it diffuses from the perichondrium or synovial fluid into the chondrocytes
  155. What the the membrane called that surrounds cartilage? –
    perichondrium
  156. Why is cartilage so flexible? –
    the cartilage fibers are embedded in a firm gel, the matrix contains lots of collagne fibers
  157. Why is cartilage an excellent support system for a developing embryo? –
    because it forms rapidly and retains its shape and rigidity
  158. What are the 3 types of cartilage? –
    Hyaline cartilage, Elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage
  159. What is the most abundant type of cartilage in the body? –
    hyaline cartilage
  160. Where in the body would you find hyaline cartilage? –
    covering the epiphysis of bones, costal cartilage (attaches the ribs to the sternum), rings of the trachea and in the skeleton of a developing fetus
  161. What type of cell does cartilage form from? –
    mesenchymal cells during embyonic development
  162. Where in the body would you find elastic cartilage? –
    ears, nose, epiglottis, Eustachian tubes
  163. What type of protein fiber do all 3 types of cartilage have? –
    • collagen
    • What extra type of protein fiber allows Elastic cartilage to be extremely flexible? –
    • elastic protein fibers
  164. Where is fibrocartilage found? –
    iintervertebral disks and the symphysis pubis
  165. Whoch type of cartilage is the strongest and most rigid? –
    fibrocartilage
  166. What type of cartilage is the most flexible? –
    elastic cartilage
  167. What are the 2 types of cartilage growth? –
    Interstitial growth and appositional growth
  168. Where does appositional growth occur in cartilage? –
    perichondrium
  169. When will intersitial cartilage growth occur? –
    during childhood and adolescence
  170. When will appositional cartilage growth occur? –
    throughout life
  171. Whay type of hormone is most important in regulating blood- calcium levels? –
    parathyroid hormone
  172. What are the 2 hormones that regulate blood-calcium levels? –
    parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
  173. What are the 3 organs that aide in calcium regulation? –
    kidneys, small intestine and bone
  174. In a normal healthy adult, how will the kidneys help with calcium levels in the blood? –
    all calcium that passes though the kidneys will be reabsorbed into the blood stream
  175. How much of the body's calcium reserve is located in bones? –
    98%
  176. Where in the body is dietary calcium absorbed? –
    small intestine
  177. What happens during bone remodeling? –
    calcium moves in or out of the blood
  178. What type of osteoclast activity occurs during the breakdown of bone? –
    osetoclasts release calcium back into the blood by dissolving bone matrix
  179. What type of osteoblast activity occurs during the formation of bone? –
    osteoblasts remove calcium from the blood and deposit it into the bone
  180. What 4 things is calcium homeostasis essential for? –
    bone formation and repair, blood clotting, nerve conductivity and muscle contraction
  181. What 3 things will the parathyroid do in repsonse to low calcium levels in the blood? –
    stimulate osteoclasts, increase renal absorption of Ca, stimulate vitamin D synthesis
  182. What is added to the lining of the small intestine epithelial cells to help increase calcium absorption? –
    calcium binding protein
  183. What organ serves as the greatest reservoir of calcium? –
    bone
  184. When is calcitonin produced? –
    when blood- calcium levels are high
  185. Layers of Integument
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
  186. Purposes of integument (8)
    • Insulates
    • Cushions
    • Protects from mechanical, chemical and thermal damage
    • Protects from bacterial invasion
    • Prevents moisture loss
    • Excretory
    • Sense organ
    • vitamin D synthesis
  187. Epidermis cells (4)
    • Keratinocytes -most abundant, tightly connected by desmosomes
    • Melanocytes-coloring
    • Langerhans (immunity)
    • Merkel cells (sensory)
  188. Layers of the epidermis
    • Stratum basale (basal)-single row of cells immediately adjacent to the dermis-new growth (germanitivum)
    • Stratum spinosum (spiny) several layers just above basal layer. Pre-keratin protein.
    • Stratum granulosum (granular) thin layer of granules for waterproofing and keratin fibrils.
    • Stratum Lucidium (clear) very thin translucent band of flattened dead keratinocytes. Not present in thin areas.
    • Stratum corneum (horny layer) outermost 20-30 cell layers, most of the thickness, fully keratinized.
  189. Layers of dermis
    2 main
    • Papillary-more superficial dermal region-composed of areolar connective tissue. irregular with papillae that connect it to the epidermis. Fingerprints. Abundant nutrients. Pain and touch receptors.
    • Reticular layer-deepest skin layer. dense irregular connective tissue , very vascular, sweat and sebaceous glands, pressure receptors.
  190. Pacinian corpuscles
    Pressure receptors
  191. Accessory organs of the skin
    • Nails
    • Hairs
  192. Parts of the nail (6)
    • Body-visible part
    • Root-embedded in the skin
    • Eponychium-cuticle
    • Nail bed-extension of stratum basale beneath the nail
    • Nail matrix-thickened part containing germinal cells
    • Lunula-proximal region that is white
  193. Hair Structures
    • Follicle
    • Arrector pili muscle
  194. Cutaneous glands
    • Sebaceous-oil
    • Sweat-(suderiferous) Eccrine, Apocrine
  195. Vitamin D Pathway (uncertain)
    • UV
    • Epidermis
    • Calciferol
    • Liver
    • Skin
    • Liver
    • Kidney

    Ugly eccentric commoners like shadowy late knights.
  196. Melanin production and dispersal (4)
    • Melanocytes produce vesicles of melanin
    • Melanin disperses along actin fibers
    • Endocytoses into keratinocytes
    • Floats to the sunny side of keratinocytes
  197. Gland types of the skin
    • Sebaceous,
    • suderiferous (eccrine, apocrine)
    • Ceruminous
  198. Sebaceous (5)
    • Produce oily secretions
    • hairs and skin, lubrication
    • Simple, branched alveolar
    • Stimulated by androgens
    • Seborrhea=cradle cap
  199. Sudiferous glands
    • Apocrine-
    • armpits,  mammary,groin
    • Sweat plus oils
    • Odor from bacterial breakdown
    • Communication

    • Eccrine/maricrine
    • Watery
    • over most of body
    • Usually assoc with hair
  200. Hair
    • Pili
    • Dead, Keratinized cells
    • Shaft-keratinization complete
    • Root-still  becoming keratinized
    • Pigmented by melanin
    • Arrector pili-ssensory, goose bumps

  201. Skin cancers
    • Basal cell
    • Squamous cell
    • Malignant Melanoma
  202. Basal cell carcinoma
    • least malignant
    • slow growing
    • Surgical removal usually successful
    • dome with crater in center.
  203. Squamous cell
    • Located in Stratum Spinosum
    • Scaly, reddened bump
    • Grows quickly
    • Chance for cure is good
  204. Malignant Melanoma
    • A-Asymmetric
    • B-Border irregular
    • C-Color-multi
    • D-Diameter-6mm
    • E-Elevation
    • Very rapid and deadly
  205. Burns-type, signs
    1st degree-epidermis only-hot,red, painful-heals without complication-sunburn. Heals within a few days

    2nd degree-Upper dermis. Blistering from separation of epith. and dermis. Heals within a few weeks

    1st and 2nd are also partial-thickness

    3rd degree-full thickness-throough dermis, not painful initially, grey-white, cherry red or black. Loss of water very dangerous, infection. Grafting can help regenerate skin. Can lead to loss of function due to lack of elasticity in scar tissue.
  206. Critical burns
    • Over 25% 2nd degree
    • 10% 3rd degree
    • 3rd degree hands, feet or face.

    Burns to face could include respiratory involvement. Limitation in joints also troublesome.
  207. Rule of Nines
    • Head 9%
    • Trunk 18 front 18 back
    • Arms 9 left 9 right
    • Legs 18 left 18 right
    • Perineal 1%

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