Body Structure and Function Ch 11 and 13

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Body Structure and Function Ch 11 and 13
2013-03-07 09:02:10
Body Structure Function 11 13

Blood and the vascular system
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  1. Arteries
    • Carry blood from the heart to the capillaries
    • consist of three layers in their walls
  2. Tunica Media
    • Middle layer of arteries
    • smooth muscle and elastic tissue
    • contributes to maintenance of diastolic blood pressure
  3. Veins
    • Carry blood from the capillaries to the heart
    • three layers in walls
  4. Endothelium
    • Inner layer of veins
    • folded into valves to prevent backflow of blood
  5. Norepinephrine
    • Stimulates vasoconstriction
    • raises blood pressure
  6. Epinephrine
    • Increases cardiac output
    • raises blood pressure
  7. ADH
    • Increases water absorption by the kidneys
    • increases blood volume and blood pressure
  8. ANP
    • Increases excretion of Na+ ions and water by the kidneys
    • decreases blood volume and blood pressure
  9. Aldosterone
    • Increases reabsorption of Na+ ions by the kidneys
    • water follows Na+ 
    • increases blood volume and blood pressure
  10. Pulmonary pathway of circulation
    Right ventricle --> pulmonary artery --> pulmonary capillaries (exchange of gas) --> pulmonary veins --> left atrium
  11. Systemic pathway of circulation
    Left ventricle --> aorta --> capillaries in body tissue --> superior and inferior caval veins --> right atrium
  12. Hepatic portal circulation
    Blood from the digestive organs and spleens flow through the portal vein to the liver before returning to the heart

    purpose: the liver stores some nutrients or regulates their blood levels and detoxifies potential poisons before blood enters the rest of peripheral circulation
  13. Anastomoses
    Connection between vessels of the same type
  14. What do anastomoses provide?
    A alternate pathway for blood flow if one vessel is blocked
  15. Arterial anastomoses
    Provide for blood flow to the capillaries of an organ
  16. Venous anastomoses
    Provide for return of blood to the heart an are most numerous in veins of the legs
  17. What is the function of capillaries?
    to carry blood from arterioles to venules
  18. Describe capillary walls
    One cell thick to permit exchanges between blood and tissue fluid
  19. In the capillaries, how are oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged?
  20. diffusion
    Movement of gases from area of greater concentration to area of less concentration
  21. What is the function of BP in capillaries?
    Brings nutrients to tissues and forms tissue fluid in the process of filtration
  22. Define venous return
    The amount of blood that returns to the heart. 

    If venous return decreases, heart contracts less forcefully and BP decreases.
  23. What is the function of the skeletal muscle pump in regards to venous return?
    • Contracts skeletal muscles, especially in the legs.
    • squeezes the deep veins to return the blood
  24. What is the function if the respiratory pump in regards to venous return?
    The pressure changes of inhalation and exhalation expands and compresses the veins in the chest cavity
  25. Describe the relationship between heart rate, force, and BP
    If heart rate and force increase, BP increases
  26. When does systolic pressure occur?
    During ventricular contraction
  27. When does diastolic pressure occur?
    During ventricular relaxation
  28. What is a normal BP?
    90/60 - 120/80
  29. What is the site of exchange between fetal blood and maternal blood?
  30. What is the normal pH of blood?
  31. Whats another name for RBCs?
  32. name two immature RBCs
    Normoblasts and reticulocytes
  33. What is another name for WBCs?
  34. what is the extrinsic factor needed for DNA synthesis in stem cells in RBM?
    Vitamin b12
  35. ABO blood types
    • Hereditary
    • indicates antigens on RBCs
  36. What phagocytize pathogens?
    Neutrophils and monocytes
  37. What becomes macrophages?
    Monocytes, they also phagocytize dead tissue
  38. what do basophils contain and what is its functuon?
    • Contain the anticoagulant heparin and histamine
    • Contribute to inflammation
  39. Platelet plugs
    Rupture of a capillary creates a rough surface to which platelets stick and form a barrier over the break
  40. Antithrombin
    • Synthesized by the liver
    • inactivates excess thrombin
  41. Heparin
    Inhibits the clotting process
  42. What prevents abnormal clotting?
    Very smooth endothelium that lines blood vessels
  43. Clot retraction
    Folding of the fibrin threads to pull the cut edges of the vessel closer together to facilitate repair
  44. Fibrinolysis
    The dissolving of the clot once it has served its purpose
  45. What does chemical clotting involve?
    • Platelet factors
    • chemicals from damaged tissues
    • prothrombin
    • fibrinogen
    • and other clotting factors synthesized by the liver
    • calcium ions
  46. what is a chemical clot formed from?
    Fibrin threads that form a mesh over the break in the vessel
  47. When a RBC dies, where does the iron go?
    It is returned to the RBM and stored in the liver
  48. What do RBCs carry?
    O2 bonded to the iron in the hemoglobin
  49. Hypoxia
    Stimulates the kidneys to produce the hormone erythropoietin, which increase the rate of RBC production in the RBM
  50. what percent of the plasma is water?
  51. What does plasma transport?
    Nutrients, wastes, hormones, heat, antibodies, cO2 as hco3
  52. Plasma proteins
    Clotting factors are synthesized by the liver
  53. Albumin
    • Synthesized by the liver 
    • provides colloid osmotic pressure at pulls tissue fluid into capillaries to maintain normal blood volume and blood pressure
  54. What are the formed elements in blood cells?
    RBCs, WBCs and platelets
  55. Primary hemopoietic tissue
    • After birth it is the red bone marrow
    • contains stem cells
  56. Precapillary sphincters
    Smooth muscle cells that regulate blood flow into the capillary network