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What are the 3 reasons for assessing IOA?
Consistency of measurement
Minimizes observer bias
reflects the quality of operational definition
What is the difference between agreement between observers and accuracy? Is it possible to have one but not the
Agreement - how well data from independent observers correspond
Accuracy - How well the data reflects what actually happens
Yes it is possible, two people can make mistakes in the same way therefore you can have agreement but not accuracy
definition could be too broad, thus you have accuracy but not agreement
What is the difference between and reliability and validity? Can you have one
without the other? Explain.
Reliability - consistent measurement of the construct
Validity - measurement reflects the construct
- yes. you can measure something reliably and it not reflect the construct
- and you can measure a construct inaccurately
List and describe the 3 methods for calculating
interobserver agreement that were compared?
- Frequency Ratio - Compares totals of observers
- Can be used for frequency, intervals of Bx, or
- Typically used when measuring free-operant bx
- Small freq/large freq x 100
- o Point by point agreement - Assess agreement on each instance of BX
- Use when there are discrete opportunities for BX (e.g., present-absent, correct-incorrect)
Formula - PBP IOA = A/(A + D) X 100
- o Frequency within interval recording
- Formula - Subtract # of disagreements form the total
- number of intervals
- For each interval that was scored as a
- disagreement divide the small frequency by the larger frequency
- (Total # of disagreements – total intervals) +
- (sum of all disagreement when small freq is divided by large freq)/ total
In general, describe results of the study.
(3 ways to calc IOA) Repp et al.
You must select the appropriate method for your study
Exact agreement was the most conservative method.
What can be done to reduce the likelihood that a high
percentage of agreement between two observers is simply the result of chance
given that the level of chance agreement changes as the percent of intervals in
which the behavior is recorded changes?
If there is a slight effect the acceptable agreement must be higher to compensate for errors in recording
What are potential sources of bias discussed by Kazdin?
Observer expectancies & feedback
Complexity of observations
What are the two purposes of baseline observations? What is the purpose of the
The descriptive function - provides the existing level of performance or the extent to which the client engages in the bx
The predictive function - allows for the prediction of future performance without intervention
Intervention - describe current performance and predict future performance if future conditions were unchanged
What is the purpose of the second A phase (i.e., the second baseline phase)?
- describe current performance
- Predict future performance
- test the prediction of the prior phase and baseline or the first A condition
Describe different procedures that can be implemented to reverse behavior.
withdraw the intervention
make the intervention ineffective or less effective (lower quality of praise, add a delay b/t praise and bx)
continue the consequences but alter associated with the consequence
Under what conditions is noncontingent reinforcement more likely to lead to a
return to baseline levels of performance and why is this the case?
when praise was previously contingent on a specific behavior
because it is not praise itself but the relationship between praise and the bx
In what situations would it be appropriate to start with intervention rather
when the base rate of Bx is zero or has never been performed
Explain how you can still meet the requirements of a reversal design without
returning to baseline.
by testing the effectiveness of two interventions showing control by one rather than the other at rates significantly different from baseline
Describe potential problems that should be considered when using a reversal design.
- ethics of a reversal
- if bx change agents are willing to reverse
- if bx change is reversable
- if the client is willing to reverse