A&P 1

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rog3ue
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205122
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A&P 1
Updated:
2013-03-05 21:44:04
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Tissues Integumentary
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Holes A&P 13th edition tissues and Integumentary syatem
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  1. Simple squamous Epithelial Cells. Found in the lining of veins, the Tongue and Skin
  2. Stratified Squamous EP. Tongue, skin
  3. Simple Cuboidial   Function: secretion and absorption Location: Kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface.
  4. Simple columnar epithelium Function: Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliated action.Location: nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gallbladder and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.
  5. Psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Function: Secretion, particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus bu ciliary action.Location: nonciliated type in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
  6. Stratified cuboidal epithelium Function: protection Location: Largest ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands, and salivary glands.
  7. Stratified columnar epitheliumFunction: protection and secretionLocation: rare in the body; small amounts in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands
  8. Transitional epithelium function: stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine Location: lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra
  9. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
    Functions (jobs): 1) Wraps around and cushions and protects organs2) Stores nutrients3) Internal support for organs4) As tendon and ligaments protects joints and attached muscles to bone and each other5) Runs through organ capsules and in deep layers of skin giving strengthThe 3 Elements of Connective Tissue: 1) Ground substance – gel around cells and fibers2) Fibers – provide strength, elasticity and support3) Cells
  10. Areolar connective tissueFunction: wraps and cushions organsLocation: widely distributed under epithelia of body.
  11. Adipose tissue Function: provides reserve fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs Location: under skin, around kidneys and eyeballs, within abdomen, in breasts.
  12. Reticular connective fibers Function: fibers form a soft internal skeloteton that supports other cell types, including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages Location: lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen)
  13. Dense regular connective tissue Function: attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one directionLocation: tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses
  14. Dense irregular connective tissueFunction: able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strengthLocation: fibrous capsules of organs and joints; dermis of the skin; submucosa of digestive tract
  15. Elastic Connective tissue Function: allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration Location: walls of large arteries; within certain ligaments associated with vertebral column, within the walls of the bronchial tubes
  16. Hyaline cartilage Function: supports and reinforces; has resilient cushioning properties; resists compressive stress Location: forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms the costal cartilages of the ribs, cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx.
  17. Elastic Cartilage Identification: Distinctive large, often paired lacunae (similar to hyaline cartilage), but note extensive dark elastic fibers (2).Features to Know: chondrocyte in lacuna (1), elastic fibers (2).Fibers Present: elastic fibers (collagen fibers are also present but not visible).Where Located: ear lobe, epiglottis (remember those Es!).Function: flexibility, bendability.
  18. Fibrocartilage Identification: Distinct, more or less parallel fibers visible. Distinguished from dense regular connective tissue by the distinct lacunae (arrow). Usually blue in color.Features to Know: chondrocytes in lacunae (arrow).Fibers Present: collagen.Where Located: intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, menisci of knee joint.Function: resists compressive forces.
  19. (Compact) Bone Identification: Concentric rings (like tree rings) are unmistakable.Features to Know: lamellae (1), osteocytes in lacunae (2), canaliculi (3), Haversian canal (4). An entire set of concentric rings (lamellae) is called a Haversian System.Fibers Present: collagen fibers present but not visible.Where Located: bones .Functions: support, protection, act as levers, mineral storage.
  20. Blood Identification: The numerous round, red blood cells in a featureless matrix are unmistakable.Features to Know: the liquid matrix is called the plasma. The numerous round, red cells are erythrocytes (or red blood cells) that lack nuclei (the center of the cell is depressed and thus may appear lighter colored). There are also smaller numbers of larger white cells with large, multi-lobed nuclei called leucocytes (or white blood cells; 1).Fibers Present: none visible.Where Located: within the circulatory system.Functions: transport of nutrients, gasses, wastes, etc.
  21. Smooth Muscle Identification: Muscle cells are packed tightly together (no gaps between cells) and usually not distinct. Nuclei (arrow) may or may not be visible. Note lack of striations. Two views are shown. To find smooth muscle look near the outer portions of the organs on the slides.Features to Know: nuclei (if visible).Where Located: under involuntary control; found surrounding most hollow organs.
  22. Skeletal Muscle Identification: Teased or l.s. section shows distinct, very large, straight fibers (fibers in cardiac muscle are much smaller & branched). Looks more like hair than any other tissue. Also has distinct.Features to Know: striations (1) composed of dark A-bands and light I-bands; nuclei (2) pushed to edge of fiber; sarcolemna (plasma membrane surrounding fiber).Where Located: skeletal muscles; under voluntary control.
  23. Cardiac Muscle Identification: Note faint striations across fibers. Fibers distinct, typically with numerous small gaps between them.Features to Know: nuclei (1), intercalated disk (2).Where Located: involuntary muscle of the heart.
  24. Neuron Identification: Note distinctive shape of neuron, with long processes (dendrites and/or axons, 5) extending out from main cell body.Features to Know: The large, irregularly shaped cell body (3) contains a darker nucleus (2), which contains an even darker-staining nucleolus (1). There are also numerous supporting glial cells, though only their small dark nuclei (4) are easily seen.
  25. Lumen
    A lumen (Lat. lūmen, an opening or light) (pl. lumina) in biology is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.[1] By extension, a lumen can also be the inside space of a cellular component or structure, such as the endoplasmic reticulum.
  26. Apical, basal and Nuculas
    • Top and Bottom of Cell or cells. 
  27. Apical, basal and Nuculas
    Goblet cells are glandular epithelial cells – found predominantly in the lining of the digestive and respiratory tracts – whose sole purpose is the secretion of mucus. Mucus is a sticky, viscous substance composed of mucins, enzymes, and electrolytes suspended in water. It coats the epithelium of vulnerable structures to protect them from chemical or mechanical damage, and to trap invading pathogens.When viewed on slides, goblet cells are usually seen to be goblet-shaped, hence the moniker. They appear narrow at the base, where the nucleus and other organelles are found, and enlarged at the apical portion where the mucus-secreting granules are located. The characteristic shape is actually a result of the expansion of mucus-filled granules during the fixation process, and when care is taken in slide preparation the cells typically appear as simple columnar cells.
  28. Goblet cells are glandular epithelial cells – found predominantly in the lining of the digestive and respiratory tracts – whose sole purpose is the secretion of mucus. Mucus is a sticky, viscous substance composed of mucins, enzymes, and electrolytes suspended in water. It coats the epithelium of vulnerable structures to protect them from chemical or mechanical damage, and to trap invading pathogens.When viewed on slides, goblet cells are usually seen to be goblet-shaped, hence the moniker. They appear narrow at the base, where the nucleus and other organelles are found, and enlarged at the apical portion where the mucus-secreting granules are located. The characteristic shape is actually a result of the expansion of mucus-filled granules during the fixation process, and when care is taken in slide preparation the cells typically appear as simple columnar cells.
  29. cilia   minute hairlike organelles, identical in structure to flagella, that line the surfaces of certain  cells and beat in rhythmic waves, providing locomotion to ciliate protozoans and moving liquids along internal epithelial tissue . 2.Anatomy . the eyelashes.

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