DISEASES AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

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athederan
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20513
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DISEASES AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
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2010-05-24 03:32:56
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diseases epidemiology
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  1. Categories of Diseases
    • Hereditary- genetic inperfections that casue the body to behave abnormally
    • Degenerative- altimers disease, degenerative arthritis
    • Neoplastic- tumors (benign and mlignet)
    • Idiopathic- unknown orgin
    • Infectious- casued by organism
  2. Koch's Postulates
    • causative agents of diseases
    • 4 things to be considered a causative agent:
    • same pathogen in every case of the disease
    • pathogen must be isolated and grown in a pure culture
    • pathogen must cause disease in the experimental host
    • same pathogen must be isolated from experimental host
  3. Portals of entry and exit
    • Entry: Skin, mucous membranes, placenta, parenteral (wound, shot, not a normal body function)
    • Exit: Aerosols, Body fluids, excretions (urine and feces)
  4. Stages of disease
    • Incubation- infection present, replication, no signs and symptoms, most likley to be transfered
    • Prodromal- increase in pathogen numbers, vague change in normal body function (tired, aches)
    • Acute- rising increase in number of microbes, severe signs and symptoms, eaisest to transfer
    • Decline- natural progression of diease, treatment or natural health, signs and symptoms decline
    • Convalescence- may have microbes present, no signs and symptoms
  5. Incidence
    epidemiology statistics- number of new cases, new infected individuals within the population, always a lower number than prevalence
  6. Prevalence
    number of cases within a population, usually given #/ 100,000 population
  7. Acute vs. Chronic
    • Acute- arise in individual, become strong then go away
    • Chronic- always present
  8. Exogenous vs. Endogenous
    • Exogenous- come from outside
    • Endogenous- self induced, opportunistic disease, caused by our own endogenous set of micro biota but causes disease due to a change in the house
  9. Nosocomial
    Focal infection
    Nosocomial- specifically hospital acquired diseases, any disease as the result of being treated in a facility- hospital, rehab, doctor office acquired Focal infection- where you have a microbe growing in a certain place in the body but the results of the infection are seen systemically ex- dyphtheria- caused by Corymebateium dyptheriae- grown in throat but travels throughout the body by the blood
  10. Reserviors
    • Animals- Zoonoses- Schistosoma, tapeworms, rabies, come from animals
    • Humans (active and asymptomatic)
    • Active- known people that have the disease
    • Asymptomatic- some members of the population that do not show typical signs and symptoms of the disease
    • Environmental- Soil, Water, Food
  11. Disease patterns
    • Endemic- disease that is always present at about the same level within a given population
    • Epidemic- unusual increase in the number of cases of a particular disease within a population, population can be defined by demographics, geography
    • Pandemic- epidemic diseases that is seen worldwide ex- HIV, SARS
    • Sporadic- shows up here and there without satisfying any of the other requirements, usually recurring and small
  12. Factors affecting the spread of diseases
    • Active, Convalescent and Asymptomatic carriers
    • Incubation period- short- disease is not usually transmitted, long incubation- more likely that the disease will be transmitted from person to person
    • Infectious dose- number of microbes that have to be ingested/ absorbed to cause the disease
    • Prior exposure: immunity- new or old- individuals and populations, if you have been exposed to it before you will have some degree of immunity
  13. Epidemic Control
    • Reduction of source- isolate it and deal with it
    • Isolation- people to people- isolation of the infected individuals
    • Quarantine- used to be applied to populations, couldn’t leave their houses
    • Destruction- destruction of source, related to reduction, not the people, but the animals
    • Treatment- drugs, reduce propagation of disease
    • Immunization- preventative, most efficient
  14. CDC
    WHO
    PHS
    • CDC (Center for Disease Control)
    • WHO (World Health Organization)
    • PHS (Public Health Service)

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