Chapter 7: Social Perception and Attributes

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Chapter 7: Social Perception and Attributes
2013-03-05 16:06:04

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  1. Perception
    cognitive process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings
  2. Perception: Information Processing Model (4 Stages)
    • 1)Selective Attention/Comprehension(ppl,events,objects)
    • 2)Encoding+Simplification (Interpretation)
    • 3)Storage+Retention (memory)
    • 4)Retrieval+Response (judgements,decisions)
  3. Stage 1: Attention
    • process of becoming consciously aware of something or someone
    • -ppl pay attention to salient stimuli
  4. Stage 1: Salient
    something that stands out from context
  5. Stage 2: Schema
    Represents a person's mental picture or summary of a particular event or type of stimulus
  6. Stage 3: Event Memory
    information about both specific and general events
  7. Stage 3: Semantic Memory
    general knowledge about the world, mental dictionary of concepts
  8. Stage 3: Person Memory
    information about a single individual or groups of people
  9. Stage 4: Decisions are Based On:
    • 1)Process of drawing on, interpreting, and integrating categorical information stored in long-term memory
    • 2)Retrieving a summary judgement that was already made
  10. Implicit Cognition
    represents any thoughts or beliefs that are automatically activated from memory without our conscious awareness
  11. Managerial Implications: Performance Appraisal (2)
    • 1)important for managers to accurately identify the behavioral characteristics and results indicative of good performance
    • 2)characteristics serve as the benchmarks for evaluating employee performance
  12. Managerial Implications: Leadership
    • 1)assigning specific tasks to group members
    • 2)telling others they had done well
    • 3)setting specific goals for the group
  13. Stereotype
    • an individual's set of beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of a group
    • -not always negative
    • -may or may not be accurate
    • -not immoral or bad to possess stereotypes
    • -inappropriate use of these lead to poor decisions
  14. Stereotyping Process (4)
    • 1)Categorize people into groups according to various criteria
    • 2)Infer that all ppl within a category possess same traits
    • 3)Form expectations of others and interpret their behavior according to our stereotypes
    • 4)They are maintained by: overestimating frequency of stereotypical behavior, incorrectly explaining expected/unexpected behaviors, differentiating minority individuals from oneself
  15. Commonly Found Perceptual Errors (5)
    • 1)Halo
    • 2)Leniency
    • 3)Central Tendency
    • 4)Recency Effects
    • 5)Contrast Efforts
  16. Sex-role Stereotype
    Belief that differing traits and abilities make men and women particularly well suited to different roles
  17. Sex-Role Stereotypes (3)
    • 1)Ppl often prefer male bosses
    • 2)women have hard time being perceived as an effective leader
    • 3)women of color are more negatively affected by sex-role stereotypes than white women or men in general
  18. Age Stereotypes
    • 1)reinforce age discrimination b/c of negative orientation
    • 2)long-standing age stereotypes depict older workers as less satisfied, not as involved, less motivated, not as committed
    • -research shows as age increases, so does job satisfaction, involvement, motivation, and org. commitment
    • -older workers are NOT more accident prone
  19. Micro Aggressions
    "biases thoughts, attitudes, and feelings" that exist at an unconscious level
  20. Stereotype Threat
    predicament in which members of a social group must deal with the possibility of being judges or treated stereotypically, or of doing something that would confirm the stereotype
  21. Managerial challenges and Recommendations
    • 1)org. first needs to inform its workforce about the problem through education and training
    • 2)managers need to identify valid individual differences that differentiate between successful and unsuccessful performers
    • 3)remove promotional barriers for men and women, ppl of color, and persons with disabilities
  22. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Pygmalion Effect)
    someone's high expectations for another person result in high performance for that person
  23. Model of Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (5)
    • 1)Supervisor Expectancy
    • 2)Leadership
    • 3)Subordinate Self Expectancy
    • 4)Motivation
    • 5)Performance
  24. Galatea Effect
    occurs when an individuals high self expectations for him lead to high performance
  25. Golem Effect
    loss in performance resulting from low leader expectations
  26. Putting Self-Fulfilling Prophecy to Work (5)
    • 1)Recognize that everyone has potential to increase performance
    • 2)set high performance goals
    • 3)positively reinforce employees for a job well done
    • 4)provide frequent feedback that conveys a belief in employees' ability to compete their tasks
    • 5)give employees opportunity to experience increasingly challenging tasks and projects
  27. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy to work Continued (6-10)
    • 6)communicate using facial expressions, voice intonations, body language, encouraging comments
    • 7)provide input, information, and resources needed to achieve goals
    • 8)introduce new employees as if they have outstanding potential
    • 9)encourage them to stay focused on present moment and not worry about past negative events
    • 10)help employees master key skills
  28. Casual Attributions
    suspected or inferred causes of behavior
  29. Kelley's model of Attribution:
    • Behavior attributed either to:
    • 1)Internal Factors:within a person (ability)
    • 2)External Factors: within environment (difficult task)
  30. Consensus
    involves a comparison of an individuals behavior with that of his peers
  31. Distinctiveness
    involves comparing a person's behavior on one task with the behavior from other tasks
  32. Consistency
    determined by judging if the individuals performance on a given task is consistent over time
  33. Fundamental Attribution Bias
    Reflects one's tendency to attribute another person's behavior to his personal characteristics, as opposed to situational factors
  34. Self-Serving Bias
    represents one's tendency to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure